[Ancient studies - Abbreviation Guide]:

Latest Revision: December 25, 2005.


Clarifications of acronyms and abbreviations, including but not limited to: reference texts, periodicals, definitions of historical terminology, scholarly organizations, publishers, museum collections, cryptic text titles, related science/ law/ numismatic/ construction items and some other useful bits.


Other sources of abbreviations.

















[Aramaic studies; pdf download]









See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


A=The Asiatic Collection, Chicago, Oriental Institute.



AA=The American Anthropologist, Manasha, Wisconsin

*AA=[Sanskrit text] Aitareya Aranyaka


AAASH=Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (Budapest)


AAG=ADAW=APAW=AAWG=Abhandlungen [papers of] der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Philol.-hist. Klasse (1838-)


AaGDeg=Altaramaische Grammatik der Inschriften des 10.–8. Jh. v. Chr. (R. Degen

AaGSeg=Altaramaische Grammatik (S. Segert 1975)

AAL=Afroasiatic Linguistics (Malibu, CA: Undena)

AAMT=Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory


AAN=American Antiquity


AANL=Atti dell'Accademia Pontificia de'Nuovi Lincei,  Rome.

*AANL=Atti della Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di scienze morali storiche e filologiche (Rome: Accad. naz. dei Lincei)


AAO=Album ´d’antiquites orientales: Recueil de monuments ´inedits ou peu connus (C. Clermont-Ganneau 1897)

AAR=Acta Archaeologica, Copenhagen

*AAr=ARYA=[Sanskrit text] Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata

**AAR=American Academy of Religion http://www.aar-site.org/


AAS=Annales archeologiques syriennes, Damascus, Syria

*AAS=American Astronomical Society


AASOR=The Annual of the American School of Oriental Research. Cambridge, MA. See ASOR.


AASyr=Les annales ´archeologiques arabes syriennes (Damascus)


AAT=Agypten und Altes Testament




AB=[Sanskrit text] Aitareya Brahmana


ABAA=Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America, Incorporated.

See [B_332]


ABAW=Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-hist. Klasse (1835-)


ABC=Assyrian and Babylonian Contracts with Aramaic Reference Notes (J. H.
Stevenson 1902)

ABCD=Aspects of Babylonian Celestial Divination; By Francesca Rochberg-Halton


ABD=Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman (main ed.), DoubleDay, 1992. [B_267]


AbhKGWG=Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen

ABL=Assyrian and Babylonian Letters, R. F. Harper, London and Chicago, 1892-1914.


ABORI=Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute


ABSA=Annual of the British School at Athens (1894/5-) London.


AC=Act. Class.=Acta Classica

*AC=Aramaische Chrestomathie (J. J. Koopmans 1962)


Ach=L’astrologie chaldeenne, by Ch. Virolleaud, Paris, 1907-1912.


ACII=Appendice al Corpus Inscriptionum Italicorum, Florence, 1880, by G. F. Gamurrini


ACLHU=Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University. Cambridge, MA.


ACME=Associazione Collaboratori Museo Egizio

c/o Museo Egizio di Torino, via Accademia delle
Scienze 6, 10123 Turin, Italy


*ACOR=Acta Orientalia, Batavia


ACSS=Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia. An International Journal of Comparative Studies in History and Archaeology; 1994-


ACT=Astronomical Cuneiform Texts, London, 1955, by Otto Neugebauer.


Act. An.=AcAn=Acta Antiqua


Act. Class.=Acta Classica=AC


AD=Anno Domini=After Death [of Jesus Christ].=CE=Common Era=Conversion Era=Christian Era=n. Chr.=apr. J-Chr.


AD=Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. (G. R. Driver 1954)


ADAIK=Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts Kairo - Agyptologische Reihe

*ADAIK=Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts Kairo - Koptische Reihe


ADAJ=Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan (Amman)


ADAW=AAG=APAW=Abhandlungen [papers of] der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen [or Berlin]. Philol.-hist. Klasse (1838-)


ADD=Assyrian Deeds and Documents, by C. H. W. Johns, 4 volumes, Cabridge, 1898-1923. *See 1901


ADFU=Ausgrabungen der deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk Warka, Berlin


ADO=Annals of the Dudley Observatory, Albany, NY.


ADOGA=Ausgrabungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft [society] in Abusir


ADP=Archives de Psychologie, Geneva


ADSM=Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts, Boston, A. P. Hatch, 1946.


ADT=Astronomical diary texts

*ADT=Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts, H. Hunber, and A. J. Sachs


AE=Ancient Egypt(ian).

*A.E.=Arsacid era


AEA=Aegean Archaeology (1994-)


AEB=Annual Egyptological Bibliography, ed. by LMJ Sonhoven.

(CATNYP# O-OBI 86-878): http://www.leidenuniv.nl/nino/aeb.html

*AEB [Same]=Bibliographie Egyptologique annuelle / International Association of Egyptologists [IAE].

AECT=Aramaic Epigraphs on Clay Tablets of the Neo-Assyrian Period (F. M. Fales 1986)

AEG=Aegyptus. Rivista italiana di egittologia e papirologia, Milan

AEL=Ancient Egyptian Language List

AEME=Gillain, Olivier, l’Arithmetique au Moyen Empire, Bruxelles, 1927 [B_336,SIBL]


AEMT=Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Ed. by Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 2000.


AEO=Ancient Egyptian Onomastica by A.H. Gardiner,

3 vols, Oxford, 1947.


AEPOA=[l'Association des etudes du Proche-Orient ancien] (AEPOA) de l'Universite de Montreal. [L'epigraphie et l'architecture au Proche-Orient ancien; …Karnak.]

AERIA=Antikensammlung Erlangen Internet Archive) – Photosammlung


AESA=Ancient Egypt Studies Association, Seattle


AESC=Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Paris


AESH=”Ancient Egypt; a social history”; Cambridge, 1983, by Trigger, Kemp, Connor and Lloyd


AF=Altorientalische Forschungen (Leipzig: Pfeiffer)

AFAICR=[Internet expression]=As far as I can recall


AFAICT=Internet expressions=As far as I can tell


AFAIK=Internet expression=As far as I know

AFD=AfD=Annales d’une famille de Dilbat, by M. J. E. Gautier, Cairo, 1908


AfK=Archiv fur Keilschriftforschung


AfO=AFO=AOF=Archiv fur Orientforschung (1923-), Graz.


AFOB=Archaeological Fieldwork Opportunities Bulletin, 2003


AfP=ARCHIV=Archiv fur Papyrusforschung [papyrus research]


AgA=AGA=AgAbh=Agyptologische Abhandlungen, Weisbaden, 1960-

(CATNYP# *OBH Agyptologische Abhandlung) About 60 volumes to date. An excellent reference text. [B_074; B_196]


AGM=Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Leipzig


AGMNT=Archiv fur Geschichte der Mathematik, der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik.


AGW=Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft [society] der Wissenschaften, Gottingen


AH=”Achaemnid History. Proceedings of the Groningen Achaemnid History Workshop”, H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg and A. Kuhrt, 3 volumes 1987-8

*A.H.=AH=years of the Hijra [Hegira; from 621 CE]

See early Islamic/Kufic inscriptions from Saudi Arabia [near Madinah]


**AH=An Aramaic Handbook (F. Rosenthal 1967)


AHANE=Archeological History of the Ancient Near East, Jack Finegan, Barnes & Noble, 1979.


AHAW=Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-hist. Klasse


AHB=The Ancient History Bulletin



AHC=Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE, New York


AHDO=AHDO=Archives d’Histoire du Droit [Law] Oriental. [B_566] See also DJE; ATLA; JEWISH LAW.


AHES=Archive for the History of the Exact Sciences


AHw=AHW=Akkadisches Handworterbuch by W. Von Soden, Weisbaden, 1957-81.


AI=Arad Inscriptions. See Y. Aharoni in BASOR 184 and IEJ 16


AIA=Archaeological Institute of America. See CSA


*AIA=Architects Institute of America


AIEE=American Institute of Electrical Engineers, NYC.


AIHS=Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences, Paris.


AIM=Artificial Intelligence Magazine


AION=Annali dell’Instituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli


AISC=American Institute of Steel Construction


AISI=American Iron and Steel Institute


AIV=Atti dell'Istituto Veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti (1840-)


AJ=Accountants Journal


AJA=American Journal of Archaeology, NYC


*From 1895-6 called: American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of Fine Arts

AJBA=Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology


AJP=AJPH=American Journal of Philology, NYC.


AJPS=American Journal of Psychology, NYC.


AJS=American Journal of Science, NYC.


AJSL=AJSLL=American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature(s), Chicago, IL


AJT=American Journal of Theology


AK=Antike Kunst; edited by:Kristine Gex, Jean-Robert Gisler, Margot Schmidt, Rolf A. Stucky, Dietrich Willers; annual; 1958-


AKA=I use this occasionally in lieu of “also known as”


AKM=Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes


AKK=Akkadika, Brussels


AKRG=Arbeiten der Kaiserlichen Russischen Gesandschaft zu Peking, Berlin.


Alal.=[cuneiform tablets and/or town of] Alalakh


ALASP=Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-Syrien-Palästinas und Mesopotamiens


AM=Anno Mundi=year of the world. [Since the presumed Biblical origin of time; 3761 BCE; Genesis]. See TORAH. Note: 3372 BCE is the first year in the Mayan calendar

*AM=American Machinist

**Am.=El Amarma [cuneiform tablets]


AMA=Asia Major, Liepzig and London.


AMG=Annales de Musée Guimet [Sanskrit collections]


AMI=Archaeologische Mitteilungen [reports] aus Iran, Berlin


AMM=American Mathematical Monthly


AMNH=American Museum of Natural History, NYC. See BAMNH.


AMP=Archiv der Mathematik and Physik

AMUCHMA=African Mathematical Union Commission on the History of Mathematics, 2004.

Chairman is Dr. Paulus Gerdes.


AN=Astronomische Nachrichten [nach=after]


AnBib=Analecta Biblica. Investigationes scientificae in res biblicas (Rome)


Anc. Soc.=Ancient Society (Leuven)


ANE=Ancient Near East


ANEP=The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. Ed. J. B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press 1954. 2nd ed., with supplement, 1969.


ANESTP=The Ancient Near East. Supplementary Texts and Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. Ed. J. B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969.


ANET=Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament, 3rd edition, Princeton, 1969. by J. B. Pritchard


Ann.=ANN=Annales=Ann. Serv.=ASAE=Annales du Service des antiquites de l'Egypte, Le Caire.1900-


AnOr=AOR=Analecta Orientalia, Rome


ANS=Anatolian Studies, London


ANSI=American National Standards Institute [Construction/Fabrication Standards]


Ant. Class.=L’Antiquite Classique


ANTH=Anthropos, Goteborg


ANTHR=Anthropologie, Paris.


AntTard=AT=Antiquité Tardive; edited by J.-M. Carrié; 1993-


ANU=Australian National University


AO=Antiquités Orientales, Louvre.


*AO=Inventory mark from Louvre cuneiform tablet collection. Paris

**AO=[Oxford scientific journal] Archaeologia Oxoniensis [1896]

***AO=Aula Orientalis


AOAT=AOATS=Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Neukirchen-Vluyn [Neukirchener]


AOAWW=Anzeiger der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, phil.-hist. Kl.


AOB=Acta Orientalia Belgica


AOF=AfO=AFO=Archiv fur Orientforschung (1923-), Graz.

*AoF=Altorientalische Forschungen, Leipzig


AOR=AnOr=Analecta Orientalia, Rome.


AOS=The American Oriental Society

*AOS=The American Oriental Series, New Haven, Connecticut.

AOS=Ashmolean Ostracon [see SINUHE]


AP=Asian Perspectives

*AP=Analecta Papyrologica

**AP=Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. (A. Cowley 1923)


APA=Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan (A. H. Sayce and A. Cowley 1906)

*APA=Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica (1970-)


APAO=Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania


APAW=Konigliche Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Abhandlungen. Philosophische-historische Klasse.

(CATNYP# *EE P921), [B_199].


*APAW=AAG=ADAW=Abhandlungen [papers of] der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Philol.-hist. Klasse (1838-)


APC=Annales de Philosophie Chretienne; see [B_561]; JEWS.


APE=Aramaische Papyrus aus Elephantine (A. Ungnad 1911)


APEL=Arabic Papyri in the Egyptian Library, volume IV, Cairo, 1962, by A. Grohmann


APIS=Advanced Papyrological Information System



APM=L'Architettura delle Piramidi Menfite, in seven volumes, Rapallo, 1964, also V. Maragioglio and C. Rinaldi.


APO=Aramaische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer judischen Militarkolonie zu Elephantine (E. Sachau 1911)


APS=American Philosophical Society, founded by Benjamin Franklin, Philadelphia, see also MAPS and TAPS


AR=Asiatic Researches


ARA=Annual Review of Anthropology


ARAB=Arabica. Revue d’etudes arabes, Leyden.


ARAK=Astrological Reports to Assyrian Kings, H. Hunger


ARBE=Annual Report of the American Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, DC


ARBS=Annual Report of the Bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC




ARCE=[Bulletin/Newsletter of] American Research Center in Egypt, Cairo


ARCH=Architect=Archeologist and

*ARCH=Archeologia, Rome


ArchBulg=Archaeologia Bulgarica; edited by Lyudmil F. Vagalinski; 1997-



*ARCHIV=an/any archive [German word]


ARCHL=Archaeologia, London


ARCHN=Archaeology, NYC


ARE=James H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt (1935).


ARET=Archivi Reali di Ebla. Testi, Rome, 1981-

ARg=Agyptische Rechtsgeschichte. [Law/rights] By Seidl.


ARIT=American Research Institute in Turkey


ARM=ARMA=[Cuneiform] Archives Royales de Mari, Paris



ARN=Altbabylonische Rechtsurkunden [Law/rights] aus Nippur, Istanbul, 1952 (in Turkish). See NIPPUR.


ArOr=AROR=Archiv Orientalni, Prague, Czech Republic. [Ceskoslovensko=Czechoslovakia at publishing]


ARU=Assyrische Rechtsurkunden [Law/rights] in Umschrift und Uebersetzung nebst einem index der Personen-Namen und Rechtserlauterungen. Leipzig, 1913.


ARYA=Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata, by K. S. Shukla and K. V. Sarma, within INSA 77, Delhi, 1976


AS=Automata Studies, Princeton, N.J., 1956.

*AS=Anatolian Studies, Istanbul, 1974, See also HG

**AS=Assyriological Studies

***As=Altsyrien (H. T. Bossert 1951)



ASADE=Andalusian Association of Egyptology


ASAE=Ann.=ANN=Annales=Ann. Serv.=Annales du Service des antiquites de l'Egypte, Le Caire.1900-


ASAW=Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig (Berlin) [B_358a]


ASB=Assyriologische Bibliothek, Leipzig


ASE=Archaeological Survey of Egypt, London


ASI=Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi


ASJ=Acta Sumerologica, Hiroshima

ASMF=Annali di scienze matematiche e fisiche, Rome


ASNA=Annuaire de la societe francaise de numismatique et d’archeologie, Paris.


ASOR=American School Of archeological Research, Ann Arbor Michigan, See AASOR. See BASOR.



ASP=American Society of Papyrologists

*ASP=American Studies in Papyrology. See [B_491]; Chico, California, 1966-. Irregular. Some volumes published [1966-?] by the American Society of Papyrologists.  See also BASP.

See also [O_066].


ASPN=Annales de sciences physiques et naturelles, Lyon.


ASR=Abhandlungen zum schweizerischen Recht, Bern


ASS=Assyriological Studies, Chicago, Illinois.

*ASS=[Sanskrit text] Apastamba Sulbasutra

ASTENE=Association for the Study of Travel in Egypt and the Near East


ASTM=American Society for Testing and Materials, International. [Construction/Testing/Standards]


ASTP=Archives suisses des traditions populaires


ASTRI=L’Astronomie indienne. Investigations des textes sanskrits et des donnees numeriques. Paris, Ecole francaise d’Extreme-Orient, 1971. By R. Billard.


AT=Alalakh tablets; See Alalakh

*AT=Annales des Telecommunications, Paris.


**AT=AntTard=Antiquité Tardive; edited by J.-M. Carrié; 1993-


ATAT=Altorientalische Texte zum Alten Testament (H. Gressmann et al. 1926)

Aug Augustinianum


ATLA=American Theological Library Association=religion database


*[same] ATLA=[JAB Indices published by the] American Theological Library Association, Chicago.



ATU=Archaische Texte aus Uruk. By A. Falkenstein, within ADFU, Berlin, 1956. See URUK.


ATU2=Zeichenliste der Archaischen Texte aus Uruk. See URUK. By M. W. Green and H. J. Nissen, Volume 2, Berlin, 1985.


AUB=American University of Beirut



AUC=American University in Cairo



AUCT=Andrews University Cuneiform Texts, Michigan, 1984


AUIE=Asociacion Universitaria de Investigacion Egiptologica


AUSS=Andrews University Seminary Studies


AUT=Automatisme, Paris.


AV=Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo, Archaologische Veroffentlichungen (Mainz)

*AV=[Sanskrit text] Atharvaveda


AWAS=Altsumerische Wirtschaftsurkunden aus amerikanischen Sammlungen, FAOS 15, 2, Stuttgart, 1993

AWL=Altsumerische Wirtschaftstexte aus Lagas, Rome, 1972

AWLM=Akademie von Wissenschaften und Litteratur in Mainz



b. (preceding name of tractate)=[portion of] Talmud Bavli [Babylonian]

See y.

*b.=[indicates year of] birth


BA=Bibliographie Altagypten 1822-1946, Beinlich-Seeber, Christine, Weisbaden, 1998. Three excellent reference volumes.

(CATNYP# *O-*OBI 99-2525), [B_196b]; See AgA.

See alternates below.


*BA=Biblical Archaeologist


*BA=*alternate sp. Archaologist

**BA=BAS=Beitrage zur Assyriologie


BAB=Bulletin de l’Academie de Belgique, Brussels=bulletin de la classe des beaux-arts. academie royale de belgique. koninklijke belgische academie. Bruxelles. See BARSB. [Vols. 54- also called series 5]

*BAB=Academie royale de Belgique. Bullettin de la classe des

lettres et des sciences morales et politiques, 5e serie,

tome 74 (1988).


BABA=Beitraege [contributions] zur Aegyptischen Bauforschung und Altertumskunde

Le Caire; See ANNU.


BACE=Bureau des Affaires Culturelles et de l'Éducation du Consulat Général d'Égypte,  1 Place Ville-Marie, 19ième étage, suite 1936, Montreal, Quebec

*BACE= [Index of] The Bulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology (vols. 1-14, 1990-2003)

Bae=BAE=Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca, Brussels


BAGB=Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé; 1923-


Bal.=P. E. Kahle, “Bala’izah / Coptic texts from Deir el-Bala’izah in Upper Egypt.” 2 Volumes, London, 1954.


BAM=Die babylonisch-assyrische Medizin in Texten und Untersuchungen, by F. Kocher, Berlin, 1963-

*BAM=Bulletin d'archeologie marocaine. See BINGEN.


BAMNH=Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, NYC. See AMNH.


BAMS=Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society


BANEA=British Association of Near Eastern Archaeologists


BAOM=Bulletin of the Ancient Orient Museum, Tokyo


BAPS=Bulletin de l’Academie polonaise des Sciences, Warsaw


BAR=BARev=Biblical Archaeology Review. See BAS.



BARSB=Bulletin de l’Academie royale des sciences et belles‑lettres de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. See BAB.


BAS=BA=Beitraege zur Assyrologie und Semitischen Sprachwissenschaft.

*BAS=Biblical Archaeology Society. See BAR



BASC=BSAC=Bulletin de la Societe d’Archeologie Copte.


BASNY=The Biblical Archaeology Society of New York



BASO=BASOR=Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan. See ASOR



BASP=Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists [ASP]

See BASP in [B_492].


BAT=Biblical Archaeology Today, ed. J. Amitai (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration

Society, 1985)


BBAW=Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften



BCE=Before Common Era=Before Conversion Era=Before Christian Era=Before Christ=BC=v. Chr.='vor Christus'=av. J-Chr.=avant J-Chr.='avanti Cristo'=г. н.э.=a. chr.=ante Christum


BCFM=Bulletin du Club francais de la medaille, Paris


BCMS=Bulletin of the Calcutta Mathematical Society, Calcutta, India.


BCNH=Bibliothèque copte de Nag Hammadi


BDBR=La Bibliothèque Départementale du Bas-Rhin

44, rue du Sonnenberg BP 30, F-67370 Truchtersheim and

l'Institut d'Egyptologie de l'Université Marc Bloch

9, place de l'université, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex



BdE=Bibliothèque d'Étude (IFAO, Cairo)


BDSM=Bulletin des sciences mathematiques, Paris


BE=The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania.


BEFEO=Bulletin de l'Ecole francaise d’Extreme‑Orient, Paris and Hanoi.


BEPH=Beitrage zur englischen Philologie, Leipzig


BeO=Bibbia e oriente


BES=Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar (New York)

*BES=Biblioteca Egiptológica Sevillana, Antigua



BETL=Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium


BFT=Blatter fur Technikgeschichte, Vienna


BG=[Sanskrit text] Bhagavadgita


BGHD=Bulletin de geographie historique et descriptive, Paris


BGU=BGU=Aegyptische Urkunden aus den [Koniglichen] Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Griechische Urkunden, Berlin, 1895-?


BH=Biblia Hebraica


BHI=Bulletin hispanique, Bordeaux


BHR=Bibliotheque d’humanisme et de Renaissance, Geneva, Switzerland.


BI=Biblical Interpretation E. J. Brill, Leiden. See BI

BIA=Bulletin d'Information Archéologique (BIA) vol. 27 is available

online (in PDF, 1.3 Mb):



BIACC=Bulletin of the Israeli Academic Center in Cairo


BibOr=Biblica et Orientalia (Rome)


BICS=Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies


BIE=Bulletin de l'Institute d'Égypt (Cairo)=BIDE


BIES=Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society (Hebrew)


BIFAO=Bulletin de l’Institut francais d’archeologie orientale, Le Caire.

*BIFAO=Bulletin de l’Institut francais d’antiquites orientale, Cairo.


BIMA=Bulletin of the Institute of Mathematical Applications


BIN=Babylonian Inscriptions in the collection of James B. Nies, Yale University. See NBC.


BiOr=BO=Bibliotheca Orientalis (Leiden) See BUTO.


BIPPA=Bulletin of Indo Pacific Prehistory Association


BIU=Bar-Ilan University.See NABUCHODONOSOR and NUZI.

Bar-Ilan University:





See also: Bibliotheque de la Sorbonne:



BJPES=Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society


BJRL=Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester, England


BK=Bibel und Kirche


BKI=Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde


BKT=Berliner Klassikertexte.


BL=Berichtegungliste der Griechischen Papyrusurkunden aus Aegypten. I-IV, herausgegeben von F. Preisigke und fortgesetzt von F. Bilabel, M. David, B. A. van Groningen, E. Kiessling, E. Boswinkel.

Strassburg, Berlin, Leipzig, Heidelberg, Leiden, 1913-1969.



BLC=Boston Library Consortium



BLE=Bulletin de ´litterature ´ecclesiastique


BLPC=British Library Public Catalog



BLPM=Bulletin de liaison des professeurs de mathematiques, Paris


BLR=Bell Laboratories Record, New Jersey


BM=BRM=British Museum [usually!]

BM=[Cuneiform Tablets in the] British Museum


*BM=W. E. Crum, “Catalog of the Coptic Manuscripts in the British Museum”, London, 1905.

**BM=[any?] Berlin Museum.

***BM=Beth Mikra (Jerusalem)


BMA=Brooklyn Museum of Art, See WILBOUR.

*BMA=Biblioteca Mathematica


BMAP=KR=Kr=Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri. See ELEPHANTINE.

(E. G. Kraeling 1953)


BMB=Bulletin for Mathematics and Biophysics

*BMB=Bulletin du ´Musee de Beyrouth [Beirut, Lebanon]

BMET=Bulletin du Musee d’ethnologie du Trocadero, Paris


BMFRS=Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, London


BMGM=Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum


BMP=Biblical Manuscripts Project:


BMQ=British Museum Quarterly 1926-


BMSAES=British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan [at the British Museum Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan. Unallied with the SAES.]



BN=Biblische Notizen [Beiträge zur exegetischen Diskussion]; Biblische Notizen 41 (1988). See TAANACH.



BO=BiOr=Bibliotheca Orientalis (Leiden)


BOBCAT=NYU Library search


BOG=Book of the Gates


BOH=Book of Hours


BOR=Babylonian and Oriental Record [1886-?]


BOTD=Book of the Dead=LdM=Livre de Morts


BOUSTROPHEDON=(Serpentine)=as a plowed field [or a mowed lawn], Greek and older AE writing style.


BP=[Sanskrit text] Bhagavata Purana

*BP=[years] before present


BPAW=Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin.

Sitzungberichte [meeting minutes]. (formerly Monatsberichte [monthly reports])

(CATNYP# *EE P934), [B_200,also see B_231].


BPO=Babylonian Planetary Omens, E. Reiner and David Pingree, Malibu, CA, 1975-


BRAH=Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid, Spain


BRM=BM=British Museum [B_222].

*BRM=Babylonian Records in the Library of J. P. Morgan.


BRVU=Babylonische Rechts- [Law/rights] und Verwaltungs-Urkunden aus der Zeit Alexanders und der Diadochen, Weimar, 1931.


BSAE=British School of Archaeology in Egypt. See ERA.


BSA=Bulletin de la Societe d’anthropologie, Paris

*BSA=Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture, Cambridge


BSAC=Bulletin de la Société d'Archeologie Copte, Cairo.


BSAI=BSAI=British School of Archaeology in Iraq.



BSAK=See SAK. See (Bomhard)/ CALENDAR.


BSAW=Berichte uber die Verhandlungen [reports of the negotiations] der Sachsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Phil.-hist Klasse


BSC=Bulletin scientifique, Paris


BSEG=BSGE=Bulletin de la Société d'Égyptologie Genève (Geneva).


BSEIN=Bulletin de la Societe d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale, Paris


BSFE=Bulletin de la Société française d'Égyptologie; Réunions trimestrielles, Communications archéologiques (Paris). http://www.egypt.edu/etaussi/adresses/sfe/sfebiblio/biblioa.htm

See (A. S. Bomhard)/ CALENDAR.


BSFP=Bulletin de la Societe francaise de philosophie, Paris


BSG=Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie


BSGE=BSEG=Bulletin de la Société d'Égyptologie Genève (Geneva).


BSGW=Berichte der Sachsischen Gesellschaft [society] der Wissenschaften


BSI=Biblioteca Sinica, Paris


BSM=Bulletin de la Societe mathematique de France, Paris


BSMA=Bulletin des sciences mathematiques et astronomiques, Paris


BSMF=Bollettino di bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, Rome


BSMM=Bulletin de la Societe de medecine mentale, Paris


BSNAF=Bulletin de la Societe nationale des antiquaires de France, Paris


BSOAS, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies

Volume 1(1917) - 7(1935). [University of] London


BSPF=Bulletin de la Societe prehistorique francaise, Paris


BSS=British Sundial Society. See (A. S. Bomhard)/ CALENDAR.


*BSS=[Sanskrit text] Baudhayana Sulbasutra


BSSFT=Bulletin de la Société Française des Fouilles de Tanis, Paris


BST=Bell System Technology, Murray Hill, New Jersey


BTDAR=The Balaam Text from Deir ‘Alla Re-Evaluated, ed. J. Hoftijzer and G. van

der Kooij. Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Leiden

21–24 August 1989 (Leiden: Brill, 1991).


Bu=[cuneiform] tablets collection in the British Museum [BM]

*BU=[Sanskrit text] Brhadaranyaka Upanisad


BVAP=BVAP=Beth Shean Valley Archaeological Project



BW=The Biblical World


BYU=Brigham Young University, Utah



BZ=Biblische Zeitschrift


BZAW=Beihefte zur ZAW


BzS=Beiträge zur Sudanforschung


=[Reports of the Society for Science History]

c.=circa; = roughly dating from

C & M=Classica et mediaevalia. Revue danoise de philologie et d'histoire; 1949-


C. ETIQ. MOM.=C. Etiq. Mom.=Corpus des Etiquettes de Momies Grecques. See also DUKE.


C. EPIST. LAT.=C. Epist. Lat.=Corpus Epistolarum Latinarum, papyris tabulis ostracis servatarum. See also DUKE.


C. ILLUM. PAP. I=C. ILLUM. PAP. I=Illuminierte Papyri, Pergamente und Papiere. See also DUKE.


C. JUD. SYR. EG.=C.JUD.SYR.EG.=The Judaean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 102-101 B.C.: a multilingual dossier concerning a "War of Sceptres". (Greek). See also DUKE.


C. PAP. GR.=C. PAP. GR.=Corpus Papyrorum Graecarum.

See also DUKE.


C4=A slow, but very thorough, search engine; [defunct?]



CA=ClAnt=Classical Antiquity; 1982-; UCP

*CA=Current Anthropology


CAA=Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum (Mainz).

*CAA=Contributions to American Archaeology, Washington, DC


CAAH=Contributions to American Anthropology and History, Washington, DC


CAD=The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. AKA The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago


CAE=Cahiers d'etudes Africaines [books of African studies] See CARLSBERG.

*CAE=Cercle Archeologique [arch. Group] d’Enghien. Annales

**Cae=The constellation Caelum.


CAH=The Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge, 1963


CAH VII=The Cambridge Ancient History, 1984


CAJ=Central Asiatic Journal


CAMEL=Center for the Archaeology of the Middle Eastern Landscape at OI, Chicago

CAPIB=Corpus of Arabic and Persian Inscriptions of Bihar, Patna


CARLA=Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition



CAS=Chemical Abstracts Service P: 800 753-4227



CATNYP=The NY Public Library Search Engine. A valuable tool.



CAW=Carnegie Institution, Washington DC


CB=Classical Bulletin


CBA=Catholic Biblical Association of America


CBGB=Country Blue Grass Blues; see OMFUG


CBQ=Catholic Biblical Quarterly. Published by the Catholic Biblical Association of America. See BI.


CBQMS=Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series.


CBS=Catalog of the Babylonian Section, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology


*CBS=Tablets in the Collections of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania


CCER=Center for Computer-aided Egyptological Research.


CCTBM=Collection of the Cuneiform Tablets of the Birmingham City Museum, P. J. Watson, 1993

CCTKC=Cat.=Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection I-V, London, 1889-1899, by C. Bezold




CdE=CDE=Chronique d’Egypte, [find this in: Bulletin periodique de la Fondation egyptienne de la reine Elisabeth], Brussels, 1925-


CDLB=Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin. See also CDLI and CDLJ



CDLI=Cuneiform digital library initiative:




CDLJ=Cuneiform Digital Library Journal



CDME=Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Faulkner.


CDS=Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg


CE=Common Era=Conversion Era=Christian Era=AD=Anno Domini

=n. Chr.='nach Christus' [nach=after]=apr. J-Chr.=apres J.-C.=After Death [of Christ]=d. C.=dopo Cristo

*CE=The [USA] Army Corps of Engineers [Construction abbreviation only]


CED=Coptic Etymological Dictionary, J. Cerny, Cambridge, 1976.


CEDOPAL=Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire
(of the University of Liege)
[has put online a bibliography with a theme:
"Pharmacopoea Aegyptia et Graeco-Aegyptia"]:
[source: ANEnews-L; EEF news; 2003]

CEMA=[2005] Centre for Egyptology and Mediterranean Archaeology
=The Department of Classics, Ancient History and Egyptology at the University of Wales Swansea is pleased to announce the appointment of Professor Thomas Schneider (of the
University of Basel) as our new Chair in Egyptology. He will
be joining us in April and will play an active role in our new
Centre for Egyptology and Mediterranean Archaeology

CEN=Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos, 1933, Frankfort.



CENT=Centaurus, Copenhagen


CERL=Consortium of European Research Libraries

CETS=Comparative Ethnographical Studies


CFCC=Centre Français de Culture et de Coopération Mounira
1 rue Madrasset El Huquq El Frinseya, Mounira, Le Caire
tel.: +20 2 794 76 79 / 794 40 95, fax: +20 2 795 71 36 / 795 71 48


CFEETK=Centre Franco-Egyptien D'Étude des Temple de Karnak


*[same] CFEETK=Le Centre Franco-Egyptian d'Étude des Temples de Karnak [preparing] a blueprint of the Karnak obelisks in order for them to be reconstructed. See Le Centre National des Recherches Scientific (CNRS).



CG=CG [B_302]=CGC=Catalogue General du Musee du Caire, 1901-CATNYP# *OBKM+(Catalogue General des Antiquities du Musee du Caire). See CAIRO.

*CGC=A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, R. S. Poole, Bologna, 1963


CH=Code of Hammurabi


CHA=The Cambridge History of Africa




ChHist=Chist=Church History; 1932-


CHI=The Cambridge History of Iran


Chist=ChHist=Church History; 1932-


CHM=Cahiers d’Histoire Mondiale (I, 1954)


CHOIX=Choix.=Choix des textes relatifs a la divination assyro-babylonienne I-II, Geneve, 1905-1919, by A. Boissier.


CHR=China Review


CHREST.MITT.=CHREST.MITT.=Grundzüge [fundamentals] und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde.


CHREST.WILCK.=CHREST. WILCK.=Grundzüge [fundamentals] und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde


CIAS=California Institute for Ancient Studies


CIC=Corpus des Inscriptions du Cambodge, by George Coedes, Paris, 1926


CIE=Corpus inscriptionum etruscarum, 1970


CIG=Corpus inscriptionum graecarum [with contributions by A. Boeckh, J. Franz, E. Curtius, A. Kirckhoff], Berlin, 1828-1877


CII=CIJ=Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaicorum (1952?) by J.B. Frey.


CIIN=Corpus inscriptionum Indicarum, London, [and Benares and Calcutta] 1888-1929




CIL=Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, Leipzig and Berlin, 1861-1943


CIS=Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, Paris, 1881-1932

I. Pars prima inscriptiones phoenicias continens.

II. Pars secunda inscriptiones aramaicas continens.

(Academia Inscriptionum et Litterarum Humaniorum 1888, 1893)

III. Pars tertia inscriptiones hebraicae continens.

IV. Pars quarta inscriptiones Himyariticas et Sabaeas continens.

V. Pars quinta inscriptiones saracenicas continens.

See PHOENICIA, [B_547].


CJ=Classical Journal


CJW=Coins of the Jewish War of 66-73 CE, [within CNP 2/3, Jerusalem, 1963] by L. Kadman


CKA=S. Timm, “Das christlich-koptische Agypten in Arabischer Zeit…Wadi Natrun…”

Weisbaden, 1984-1992.


ClAnt=CA=Classical Antiquity; 1982-; UCP


CLIO=Columbia Libraries Information Online



ClIre=Classics Ireland; 1994-



CMAIA=Italian Archaeological Mission of Alexandria


CMG=Corpus Medicorum Graecorum Heiberg.


CMIN=Newsletter of the Canadian Mediterranean Institute (*defunct)


CMJ=Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal

*CMJ=College Mathematics Journal; See PLIMPTON.

**CMJ=College of Mount St. Joseph-on-the-Ohio. See RMP [B_002]


CNAE=Contributions to North American Ethnology, Washington, DC


CNI=Carsten Niebuhr Institute

Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern Studies, University of Copenhagen


CNP=Corpus Nummorum Palaestiniensium, Jerusalem


CNRS=Le Centre National des Recherches Scientific (CNRS) in collaboration with the Le Centre Franco-Egyptian d'Étude des Temples de Karnak (CFEETK) is to prepare a blueprint of the Karnak obelisks in order for them to be reconstructed.



COA=CoA=Pendlebury, J. D. S. The City of Akhenaten: Part III: The Central City and the Official Quarters. OUP: London, 1951. See also parts I and II.


COS=The Context of Scripture. 1997. Ed. by William Hallo. Leiden: Brill.


COWA=Relative Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, edited by R. W. Erichsen, Chicago, 1954.


CP=CPH=Classical Philology, Chicago


CPEG=Centre de Papyrologie et d'Épigraphie grecque





CPIN=Le Cabinet des poincons de l'Imprimerie national, Paris, 1963


CPJ=Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum


CPL=Corpus Papyrorum Latinarum, Weisbaden, 1958. Ed. R. Cavenaile.


CPR=CPR=Corpus Papyrorum Raineri.


CQ=Classical Quarterly


CR=Classical Review


CRAIBL=CRAI=Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres (Paris)

[Reports of the Academy of the Inscriptions and the Humanities]

*See work by Jean Leclant in CRAI, 1991.


CRAM=[collection of the] Civiche Raccolte Archeologiche in Milan.


CRAS=Comptes‑rendus des seances de I’academie des Sciences, Paris


CRCIM=Comptes‑rendus du Deuxieme Congres International de Mathematiques de Paris, edited by E. Duporck, Paris, 1902


CRGL=Comptes‑rendus du Groupe linguistique d'etudes hamito‑semitiques, Paris


CRIAA=Centre Regionale Inter Africain d'Archèologie



CRL=Center for Research Libraries (Chicago)



CRRAI=Rencontre assyriologique internationale, comptes rendus


CRSP=Comptes‑rendus de la Societe imperiale orthodoxe de Palestine


CS=[Sanskrit text] Chandahsastra


CSA=Center for the Study of Architecture/ Archaeology http://www.csanet.org/index.html

(CSA), with the cooperation of the (AIA), has produced this Web-based guide to archaeological projects.


CSKBM=Catalogue of Sanskrit Buddhist Manuscripts in the British Museum


CSMBM=Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum, by W. Wright, London, BM, 1870; see also ADSM


CSMS=The Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies ; see SSEA


CT=Coffin Texts; see BOTD and PT

*CT=CTBM=Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, London, 1896; See [B_548]


CTA=A. Herdner dans Corpus des tablettes en cunéiformes alphabétiques découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929-1939, (Mission de Ras Shamra [MRS] 10), Paris, P. Geuthner, 1963 (=CTA),



CTBM=CT=Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, London, 1896; See [B_548]


CU=[Sanskrit text] Chandogya Upanisad


CUA=Catholic University of America


CUP=Cambridge University Press


CW=Classical World




D=Le Temple de Dendara, E. Chassinat, Cairo, 1934

*d.=[indicates year of] death


DAA=Denkmaler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, K. R. Lepsius, Berlin, 1845


DAB=Dictionnaire archeologique de la Bible, Paris: Hazan, 1970


DAC=Dictionnaire de l’Academie francaise


DAE=Deutsche Aksum Expedition; hrsg. von der Generalverwaltung der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin, 1913-

Note: Aksum=Aksoum=Axum [Abyssinia]

*DAE=Documents ´arameens ´d’Egypte (P. Grelot 1972)



DAFI=Cahiers de la Delegation archeologique francaise en Iran, Paris


DAGR=Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines, C. Daremburg et E. Saglio, Paris, 1873-1919


DAI=Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. See MDAIK



DAR=Denkmaler des Alten Reiches im Museum von Kairo, Berlin. See article in DAR 57, 1937, by Ludwig Borchardt.


DAS=Die Aramaische Sprache. By Altheim-Stiehl.

See also: Die Aramaische Sprache unter den Achaimeniden. Frankfurt, 1963.


DASS=Datenbank altägyptischer Särge und Sarkophage [Database of ancient Egyptian coffins and sarcophagi]



DAT=Dictionnaire archeologique des techniques, Paris, 1963


DCI=Dictionnaire de la civilisation indienne, Louis Frederic, Paris, 1987


DCR=Dictionnaire de la civilisation romaine, by J.-C. Fredouille, Paris, 1968


DDR=Deutsche Demokratische Republik=GDR=German Democratic Republic, East Germany


DE=Discussions in Egyptology [B_297], OXFORD.


DFAM=Egyptian Department of Foreign Archaeological Missions


See SCA.


DFG=Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Society)



DFIFAO=Documents de fouilles [excavations] de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire (Cairo)


DG=Demotisches Glossar, R. W. Erichsen, Copenhagen, 1954


DgRa=DGRA=De Gestis regum Anglorum libri, by William of Malmesbury, London, 1596


DHA=Dialogues d'histoire ancienne; 1974-


DI=Der Islam


DISO=Dictionnaire des inscriptions sémitiques de l'ouest



DJD=Discoveries in the Judaean Desert [I and II], Oxford, 1960.



DJE=Did Jesus Exist?, by G. A. Wells, Pemberton, 1986 (rev. ed.)

*DJE=Documents Juridiques egyptiens; see AHDO 1 (1937) p. 3-86. and AHDO 5 (1950) p. 11-91.

**DJE=DJE/Leh=HELCK, W. (Ed.), Die Lehre des Djedefhor und die Lehre eines Vaters an seinen Sohn, Wiesbaden, 1984, 930.2(32)


DLZ=Deutsche Literaturzeitung


DMA=Dictionary of the Middle Ages; edited by J.R. Strayer,

12 Vols., NY, 1982-85.


DMG=Documents in Mycenean Greek, M. Ventris and J. Chadwick, Cambridge, 1956

*DMG=Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft [society]; See ZDMG.


DN=[Babylonian] Divine Name; see fDN


DNP=Der Neue Pauly; in progress 2002; See KIP


DNTT=Dictionary of New Testament Theology


DNWSI=Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. 2 vols. Handbuch der Orientalistik, part 1: Nahe und der Mittlere Osten, 21.1-2. Leiden/New York/Cologne: E. J. Brill, 1995. ISBN: 90-04-09817-8. Pp. 1266. US $406.00. By J. Hoftijzer and K. Jongeling.

DOP=The Dakhleh Oasis Project


DOTT=Documents from Old Testament Times (D. Winton Thomas 1958)


DP=Documents Presargoniques, Paris, 1908.


DR=Divination et rationalite, Paris, 1974. By Jean Pierre Vernant et al.


DS=Der Schweiz [Switzerland]


DSB=Dictionary of Scientific Biography, NY, 1970-80, Charles Coulston Gillispie, Editor-In-Chief.


DSS=Dead Sea Scrolls. See DJD; QUMRAN.



DT=[collection of cuneiform] tablets in the British Museum

DTT=Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift


DTV=Dictionnaire de Trevoux, Paris, 1771


E=Le Temple d'Edfou, E. Chassinat, Cairo, 1897


EA=Etudes asiatiques, Zurich

*EA=EAT=El-Amarna Tablets, notably: 'Die El-Amarna-Tafeln', 2 [or more?] vols., ed. J.A. Knudtzon, 1915 (Leipzig)

**EA=´Epigraphes ´arameens (L. Delaporte 1912)


EAA=European Association of Archaeology, EAA9 (St. Petersburg):
1. Egyptian Collections in Modern Europe and Recent Excavations
2. Archaeoastronomy and Egyptology
3. Informatics and Egyptology

EAE=Enuma Anu Enlil=Enuma Anu Enlil


EAIS=The Egyptian Antiquities Information System, jointly supported by the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities [SCA].  The project was established in 2000 to create a bilingual (Arabic and English) Geographic Information System (GIS).


[above site under construction in 2002]


EAO=Egyptian Organization of Antiquities. See SCA

EAS=Les ´etats ´arameens de Syrie depuis leur fondation jusqu’`a leur transformation en provinces assyriennes (H. Sader 1987)


EAT=Egyptian Astronomical Texts, O. Neugebauer and R. A. Parker, Providence and London, 1960-1969. See PARKER.

*EAT=EA=El-Amarna Tablets, notably: 'Die El-Amarna-Tafeln', 2 [or more?] vols., ed. J.A. Knudtzon, 1915 (Leipzig)


EAW=East and West


EB=EBR=Encyclopedia Britannica, London

*EB=Encyclopaedia Biblica (in Hebrew)


EBLA0=Ebla: A New Look at History, Giovanni Pettinato, John Hopkins, 1991.


EBLA1=Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 1), Gordon/Rendsburg/Winter (eds.), Eisenbrauns, 1987.


EBLA2=Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 2), Gordon/Rendsburg (eds.), Eisenbrauns, 1990.


EBLA3=Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language (Vol 3), Gordon/Rendsburg/Winter (eds.), Eisenbrauns, 1992.


EBOR=Encyclopedie Bordas, Paris


EBR=EB=Encyclopedia Britannica, London


EC=Etudes cretoises, Paris


ECHO=Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organisation


ECTJ=Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena, A. Westenholz, Copenhagen, 1975


EDATS=Early Dynastic Administrative Tablets of Suruppak


EE=Epigrafia etrusca, G. Buonamici, Firenze, 1932


EEF=The Egyptologists Electronic Forum





EEG=Elementa epigraphica graecae, J. Franz , Berlin, 1840


EENG=Electrical Engineering


EES=[!] Egypt Exploration Fund (later renamed the Egypt Exploration Society)


EG=Epigraphia greca, M. Guarducci, Rome, 1967


e.g. = exempli gratia=for example


EI=Epigraphia Indica, Calcutta

*EI=Eretz-Israel (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society)


EIS=Encyclopedie de l'Islam, Leyden, 1908‑1938


EJ=Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem


ELTS=Earliest Land Tenure Systems in the Near East; Ancient Kudurrus, OIP 104; Chicago, 1992


EM=Encyclopedia Miqrait


EMDDR=Entwicklung der Mathematik in der DDR, Berlin, 1974


EMW=Enquetes [investigations] du Musee de la vie wallonne


EncBib=Enciclopedia de la Biblia, ed. A. D´ez Macho and S. Bartina, 6 vols.

(Barcelona: Garriga)


ENDOGAMOUSLY=[marrying] within the Tribe.


ENG=Engineering, Paris


EP=Encyclopedie de la Pleiade, Paris


EPP=L'Ecriture et la psychologie des peuples, Paris, A. Colin, 1963


EPRO=ÉPRO Études préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'Empire romain.


ERA=Egyptian Research Account (London) [after 1906: BSAE]


ERBB=Egyptologists Research Bulletin Board



ERE=Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics, Edinburgh and New York, 1908-21


ERS=´Etudes sur les religions ´semitiques 2d ed. (M.-J. Lagrange 1905)


ESE=Ephemeris fur semitische Epigraphik (M. Lidzbarski 1902–15)


ESIP=Ecritures : Systemes ideographiques et pratiques expressives : actes du colloque international de l’Universite Paris VII, 22, 23 et 24 avril 1980 / organise par Anne-Marie Christin ; [articles de] P[ierre]. Amiet…et al. Paris, 1982. [B_554]


ESL=L'Espace et la lettre Paris, within UGE, 1977; see also IHL

*ESL=English as a second language


ESM=Encyclopedie des sciences mathematiques, Paris, [UGE]1909


ESNY=Egyptological Seminar of New York, Cooper Station, NYC.


EsoA=Economic Structures of Antiquity, 1995


ESP=Extra-sensory perception; No reason to believe this. However, not everything that has happened can be explained easily. You just don’t remember your incorrect guesses.


EST=Encyclopedie internationale des sciences et des techniques, Paris, 1972


EstBib=Estudios b´blicos


et al=et alia=and others


ETANA=Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives



ETL=Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses


ETR=Etudes theologiques et religieuses




EVO=Egitto e Vicino Oriente: Rivista della sezione orientalistica dell'Istituto di Storia Antica, Università degli Studi di Pisa (Pisa)

[Egypt and the Near East: Review by the oriental section of the Ancient History Institute, Studies by the University of Pisa]


EvT=Evangelische Theologie


EXOGAMOUSLY=[marrying] from beyond the Tribe.


EXP=Expedition, Philadelphia, PA


ExpTim=Expository Times


EXTISPICY=secret science; divination by examination of entrails of sacrificed animals. See HARUSPICY


FAI=Franciscan Archaeological Institute, Jordan


FAMS=Foundation for the advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc.



FAOS=Freiburger Altorientalische Studien, Stuttgart, 1975

FAP=Fontes atque Pontes. Eine Festgabe fur Helmut Brunner, see AAT 5, [1983]


fDN=[Babylonian] female Divine Name


FEHP=Facsimile of an Egyptian Hieratic Papyrus of the Reign of Ramses II, by Samuel Birch, London, BM, 1876.


FERE=la Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth (FERE); il est réalisé par des chercheurs attachés au Centre de Papyrologie et d'Épigraphie grecque (CPEG) de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB).




FIFAO=Fouilles de l’Institut Francais d’archeologie orientale, Le Caire.

FIH=Das Mathematiker‑Verzeichnis im Fihrist des Ibn Abi Jakub an Nadim, in ZMP 37 /supplement, by H. Suter, 1892.


FIP=First [Ancient Egyptian] Intermediate Period


FIRA III=Fontes Iuris Romani Antejustiniani, Florence, 1943; reprinted 1960.


fl.=floruit=flourished [during the year(s)]


FMAM=Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL


FMJ=Federated Museums Journal


FMPA = “The Mathematics of Plato’s Academy: a new reconstruction / D.H. Fowler.” Oxford University Press, 1987 and 1999.


FMS=Fruhmitelalterliche Studien, Berlin


FRLANT=Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments


FuB=Forschungen und Berichte der Staatlichen Museen (Berlin)


FWIW=for what it’s worth [an internet abbreviation]


G&R=Greece and Rome


GCAV=Gratz College Anniversary Volume; Philadelphia, 1971.


GDNM=Gymnasium Debts and New Moons, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 32 (1949) 80-96. By E. G. Turner and O. Neugebauer. See Rylands.


GDR=German Democratic Republic, East Germany=DDR=Deutsche Demokratische Republik


GEM=Grand Egptian Museum [2003; EEF] will be situated

between the plateau and Cairo.


GGA=Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen


GI=Geschichte Israels in Einzeldarstellungen [microform] / von Hugo Winckler. Leipzig : E. Pfeiffer, 1895-1900, [B_556]


GIES=Glasgow Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland


Gilg.=Gilamesh [epic of]


GIS=Geographic Information System(s). See EAIS




GKS=Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs S'ahu‑Re, by Ludwig Borchardt, within ADOGA 7, 1913.


GLA=De sex arithmeticae practicae specibus Henrici Glareani epitome, Paris, 1554


GLECS=Comptes rendus du Groupe Linguistique ´d’Etudes ´Chamito-Semitiques




GM=Gottinger Miszellen Beitrage zur [contributions to] agyptologischen Diskussion, Goettingen 1984. [B_298]


GMAW=Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World, by E.G. Turner.


GOBLO=Greek Ostraca in the Bodleian Library at Oxford ii (1955). See BODLEIAN.


GOLD=The Genizah On-Line Database [of Cambridge University Library]



GOOGLE=Search engine



GORILA=Recueil des inscriptions en lineaire A, by L. Godart and  J. –P. Olivier, within EC 21, Paris, 1976


GOS=German Oriental Society

*GOS=Gaekwad's Oriental Series


GPS=Global Positioning System (via satellite)




GRBS=Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (1958-)


GSS=Gaikward Sanskrit Series, see GT

*GSS=Great Sand Sea=Egyptian Western Desert


GT=Ganitatilaka, by Shripati (GSS), by H. R. Kapadia, Baroda, Gaikward, 1935.


GTSS=Ganitasarasamgraha by Mahavira, Madras, 1912, by M. Rangacarya


GYT=Goal Year Texts; See URUK


GZA=Greek and demotic texts from the Zenon archive See Lugduno and ZENON.


HAMA=A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy [by Otto Neugebauer]; appeared in 1975 in three volumes as the first publication in Springer's Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. See [B_535; KESKINTO] and HIBEH and HYPSICLES


HAN=Hindu‑Arabic Numerals, by D. E. Smith and L. C. Karpinski, Boston, 1911


Hannig=HWB='Die Sprache der Pharaonen: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch (2800-950 v.Chr.)', R. Hannig, 1995 (Mainz) [**]


HARUSPICY=ancient secret science; divination by examination of entrails of sacrificed animals. See EXTISPICY


HdD=Histoire des Dynasties, ed. de Beyrouth [Beirut, Lebanon]. See also [B_437]


Hesp=HESP=Hesperis. Archives berberes et Bulletin de l'Institut des Hautes Etudes marocaines


HF=Historical Fragments,  by L. Legrain, Philadelphia, 1922, within: PBS


HFAC=Hittite Fragments in American Collections; JCS 37/1 (1985) 1-60.


HFLS=Hebrew Free Loan Society



HG=Hammurabi’s Gesetz, Leipzig

*HG=”Hommages a' H. G. Guterboch”, within Anatolian Studies [AS], Istanbul, 1974


HGE=Handbuch der griechischen Epigraphik, By W. Larfeld, Leipzig, 1902-1907


HGS=Histoire generale des sciences By R. Taton, Paris, within PUF.


HIAS=Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society





HJG=The History Journals Guide; by Stefan Blaschke



HKL=Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur I-III, Berlin, 1967-75, by R. Borger


HLCT=Haverford Library Collection of Cuneiform Tablets, New Haven, Connecticut.


HM=HMA=Historia Mathematica

(CATNYP # JSP 76-614) [B_040; see Akhmim]; See HM.


HMAI=Handbook of Middle American Indians, Austin, TX


HNE=Handbuch der Nordsemitischen Epigraphik, by M. Lidzbarski, 1898, see reprint, Hildesheim, 1962


HomAD-S=Hommages `a ´Andre Dupont-Sommer, ed. A. Caquot and M. Philonenko

(Paris: Maisonneuve, 1971)


HOR=Handbuch der Orientalistik, Leyden and Cologne


HP=Hieratische Palaographie, Liepzig, 1927, Georg[e] Moller [AKA Moeller]. [Georg Hermann Moeller 1843-?] [B_308,IMG,8.5]

*HP=Hieratic Papyrology (or Papyri)


HPBM=Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum. See ABU SIR; [W_019;OS;see OS2]. See also (A. S. Bomhard); CALENDAR.

HPBM IV=Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum. 4th Series; Oracular Decrees


HPM=(subset of the International Study Group on the Relations Between) History and Pedagogy of Mathematics (HPM), an affiliate of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.


(as per M. Gardner; search for R. C. Gupta’s zero paper and a paper on Babylonian methods to compute bow lengths.)


HPMBS=The History and Palaeography of Mauryan and Brahmi Script, C. S. Upasak, Nalanda, 1960


HSCP=Harvard Studies in Comparitive Philology, Boston.

*HSCP=Harvard Studies in Classical Philology


HSM=[Cuneiform Tablets in the] Harvard Semitic Museum.

See also BI.

*HSM=Harvard Semitic Monographs


HSS=Harvard Semitic Studies


HTR=HThR=Harvard Theological Review


HUCA=[new] Hebrew Union College Annual, edited by S. H. Blank [and others]




HW=A Commentary on Herodotus, 2 volumes, Oxford, 1912. By W. W. How and J. Wells.


HWB=Hannig='Die Sprache der Pharaonen: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch (2800-950 v.Chr.)', R. Hannig, 1995 (Mainz) [**]


IA=Indian Antiquity, Bombay (and London), 1872-


IAA=Israel Antiquities Authority, [which has had nominal control of the {Dead Sea} scrolls since the 1967 Six-Day-War]. See QUMRAN

*IAA=International Association for Assyriology


IACS=International Association For Coptic Studies



IAE=International Association of Egyptologists. See AEB.

*IAE=ICE=International Congress on Egyptology, Munich=Internationalen Ägyptologen Kongresses=IÄK


IÄK=Internationalen Ägyptologen Kongresses=International Association of Egyptologists=IAE=International Congress on Egyptology, Munich=ICE. See AEB


IAM=Istanbul Archaeology Museum



IAPN=International Association Of Professional Numismatists


IAR=Iraq Archaeological Reports by the British School of Archaeology in Iraq.


IAS=Inscriptions from Tell Abu Salabikh, OIP 99, Chicago

IATG=Schwertner, Siegfried N. IATG2 = Internationales Abkürzungsverzeichnis für Theologie und Grenzgebiete : Zeitschriften, Serien, Lexika, Quellenwerke mit bibliographischen Angaben = International glossary of abbreviations for theology and related subjects : periodicals, series, encyclopaedias, sources with bibliographical notes. 2., überarbeitete und erw. Aufl. Berlin ; New York : W. de Gruyter, 1992. [REF 016.23 S415i 1992]


IAU=International Astronomical Union



ibid.=ibidem=in the same place


ICANAS=International Congress for Asian and North African Studies, Hamburg.


ICAZ=International Council for Archaeozoology


ICC=Inuit Circumpolar Conference [Canada]

*ICC=International Critical Commentary


ICE=International Congress on Egyptology, Munich=Internationale Ägyptologen Kongresses=IÄK. See AEB


ICMI=International Commission on Mathematical Instruction


ICOMOS Principles for the Preservation and Conservation-Restoration of Wall Paintings, 5th and final draft for adoption at the ICOMOS General Assembly, Victoria Falls,October 2003. - 69 pp., pdf-file: 540 KB
English and French bibliographies (pp. 15-68)
"... the aim<> to provide more specific principles for the protection, preservation and the conservation-restoration of wall paintings..." http://snipurl.com/8ivo


ICOSMOS=International Council on Monuments and Sites


ICP=The International Congress of Papyrology [organized by the ASP]

See ICP in [B_493]. See BASP in [B_492]. See ASP in [B_491].

IDB=Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (Nashville: Abingdon)

idem.= something previously mentioned ([in] agreement)


IDERIC=Institut d'etudes et de recherches interethniques et interculturelles, Nice


IDP=International Dunhuang Project



i. e.=id est [Latin]=in effect [an example]


IEASM=[2002; Franck Goddio is the founder and President of the]

Institut Européen d'Archéologie Sous-Marine.

See (Bomhard)/ CALENDAR.

*IEASM [same]=European Institute for Underwater Archaeology

[A privately funded, multilevel partnership for international underwater archaeology]


IEEE=Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. See AHC


IEJ=Israel Exploration Journal, Jerusalem


IES=Israel Exploration Society



IESIS=Indian Epigraphy and South Indian Scripts, by C. Sivaramamurti, within BMGM 3/4, Madras, 1952


IFAO=Institut Francais d’Archeologie Orientale, Cairo.


IFK=Internationales Forschungszentrum Kulturwissenschaften
Reichsratsstraße 17, A-1010 Wien
tel.: +43 1 504 11 26, fax: +43 1 504 11 32


IG=IG=Inscriptiones Graecae [Consilio et Auctoritate Academiae Literarum Regaie Borussicae Editae]. See also KESKINTO; [B_436].



IGA=Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae


IGAI=“La Peninsula Iberica en los autores griegos : de Homero a Platon / edicion, treduccion y comentario, Elvira Gangutia Elicegui. Inscriptiones graecae antiquissimae Iberiae [IGAI] / edicion, traduccion y comentario, Helena Rodriguez Somolinos ; Julio Mangas y Domingo Placido (eds.).” Madrid, 1998

See [B_436] CATNYP# JFE 99-13015


IHE=Las insriptiones hebraicas de Espagna, F. Cantera and J. M. Millas, Madrid, 1956


IHL=Institut d'histoire du livre. See also UGE.



IHQ=Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta


IIAS=International Institute for Asian Studies, Leiden


IICE=Instituto Italiano per le Civilta Egizie



IIJ=Indo-Iranian Journal


IIRC=[an Internet expression meaning] If I recall correctly.


IJES=International Journal of Environmental Studies


IJHS=Indian Journal of History of Science


IJNA=International Journal of Nautical Archaeology; 1993-; formerly:=International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration (1972-1993)


ILR=Israel Law Review


IM=Iraq Museum, Baghdad


IMA=Institut du monde arabe
1, rue des Fossés-Saint-Bernard, Place Mohammed-V,
F-75236 Paris cedex 05
tel.: +33 1 40 51 38 38, fax: +33 1 43 54 76 45


IMCC=Listes generales des Inscriptions et Monuments du Champa et du Cambodge, by G. Coedes and H. Parmentier, Hanoi, Ecole francaise d’Extreme-Orient, 1923. See also ISCC


IMDB=Internet Movie DataBase



IMHO=[an Internet expression meaning] In my humble opinion.


IMO=[an Internet expression meaning] In my opinion.


IMS=The Institute For Mesoamerican Studies (Albany Univ.); see also MALDP and PDLMA


INA=Institute of Nautical Archaeology


INAE=Indian National Academy of Engineering



INEP=Indian Epigraphy, by D. C. Sircar, Delhi, 1965


ING-SGA=Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e [SGA ]

Storia Geofisica Ambiente, [SGA] a firm based in Bologna which was also in charge of organising the first information system on Italian historical earthquakes and drawing up the texts that comprise it.


INM=Indian Notes and Monographs


INSA=Die Inschriften Asarhaddons, Konig von Assyrien, R. Borger, AFO 9, Graz, 1956

*INSA=Indian National Science Academy, Delhi. See ARYA


IOS=Israel Oriental Studies


IP=Indische Palaographie, by G. Buhler, Strasbourg, 1896


IR=Inscription[s] Reveal[ed], Documents from the Time of the Bible, the Mishna and the Talmud, Jerusalem, 1973 (R. Hestrin et al. 1973)


IS=Isis=Isis, revue d’histoire des sciences

*IS=Indische Studien, 1850-


ISAAC=International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture



ISBE=The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915


ISCC=Inscriptions sanskrites du champa et du

Cambodge, by A. Barth and A. Bargaigne, NEM 27, Paris, 1885.

See also IMCC


Ist=IST=Archaeological Museum of the Ancient Orient, Istanbul

*Ist=See IstMitt

IstMitt=Istanbuler Mitteilungen, Tubingen

ITQ=Irish Theological Quarterly


ITT=Inventaire des tablettes de Tello conservees au Musee Imperial Ottoman (1921)


JA=Journal Asiatique, Paris; see [B_352]


JAB=JAB=Journal for the Aramaic Bible


JAH=Journal of Asian History


JAI=Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain


JAM=Jurnal Arkeologi Malaysia



JAMS=The Journal of Ancient Military Studies


JANER=Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions

* John Baines, "Egyptian Letters of the New Kingdom as Evidence
for Religious Practice", in: (JANER) vol 1.1 (Dec 2001), pp. 1 -31,
is now available for free online; in PDF (257 kB):

JANES=Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University, NYC

JanthArch=Journal of anthropological archaeology


JAOS=Journal of the American Oriental Society, New Haven CT [and Baltimore MD], 1843-


JAP=Journal of Appied Psychology


JARCE=Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (Boston/Princeton/New York/Cairo); See [B_406]


JarchSc=Journal of Archaeological Science; 1974-


JASA=Journal of the American Statistical Association


JASB=Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1830-?


JB=Jinwen Bian, by Rong-Gen, [Chinese], Beijing, 1959


JBL=Journal of Biblical Literature is a quarterly publication of the Society of Biblical Literature [SBL].



JBR=Journal of Bible and Religion


JBRAS=Journal of the Bombay branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay


JCBRAS=Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the RAS, 1846-?


JCE=Journal of Chemical Education


JCS=JCS=Journal of Cuneiform Studies, New Haven CT. [B_379]


JDAI=Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts (1886-)


JEA=JEA=The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, London, 1914-;


CATNYP# *OBH+…[B_017a; B_017b; B_303]


JEAS=Jews of Elephantine and Arameans of Syene (Fifth Century B.C.E.) (B. Porten and J. C. Greenfield 1974)


JECS=Journal of Early Christian Studies; edited by Elizabeth A. Clark, J. Patout Burns; 1993


JEH Journal of Ecclesiastical History


JEOL=Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden.

*JEOL=Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Gezelschap / Genootschap

JES=Journal of Egyptological Studies 1 (2004) Editor in Chief: Prof. Sergei Ignatov. Bulgaria.


JESHO=JESHO=JEShO=Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (Leiden) [B_380]



JFI=Journal of the Franklin Institute


JfKF=Jahrbuch fur kleinasiatische Forschung


JFM=Jahrbuch uber die Fortschritte [Progress] der Mathematik


JFMSM=Journal of Federated Malay States Museums


JG=[Sanskrit text] Jaiminiya Grhyasutra


JH=Jewish Humanities Library within the NY Public Library (42nd St. x 5th Avenue, Manhattan, NY). The Research Libraries Humanities and Social Sciences Library, Dorot Jewish Division Room 84


JHA=Journal for the History of Astronomy , Cambridge [B_415] See REIF; GOLDSTEIN.


JHS=Journal of Hellenic Studies, London


JIA=Journal of the Institute of Actuaries


JIABS=Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies


JIES=Journal of Indo-European Studies; edited by J.P. Mallory; 1973-



JJLG=Jahrbuch der Judisch-Literarischen Gesellschaft [society], Frankfurt am Main, 1903-1932


JJP=JJurPap=Journal of Juristic Papyrology


JJS=Journal of Jewish Studies, London


JLO=Journal of Laryngology and Otology,

[Pahor, A L (1992b), 'Ear, Nose and Throat in Ancient Egypt' ]

Volume 106: pages 677-687, 773-779, 863-873.


JMA=Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology; 1988-


JMBRAS=Journal of the Malayan/Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. See also MBRAS.


JNCB=Journal of the North China Branch of the RAS, 1859-?


JNES=Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Chicago, 1942-;



JNSL=Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages

JOM=a publication of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society; The Member Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society


JPAS=Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta


JPOS=Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, Jerusalem


JQR=Jewish Quarterly Review


JR=Journal of Religion


JRAS=Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society [of Great Britain and Ireland], London 1834-


JRASB=Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal


JRASI=Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London


JritSt=Journal of Ritual Studies; 1987-


JRS=Journal of Roman Studies


JRSA=Journal of the Royal Society of the Arts, London


JRSS=Journal of the Royal Statistical Society=Statistical Society of London, 1838-1987


JS=Journal des Savants, 1816-


JSA=Journal de la societe des americanistes, Paris

JSAS=JSAS=Journal of the Serbian Archaeological Society,
(Glasnik Srpskog arheoloskog drustva), Belgrade. See SAS


JSI=Journal of Scientific Instruments, London


JSJ=Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Periods, Leiden, 1970-


JSO=Journal de la societe orientale d'Allemagne


JSOR=Journal of the Society of Oriental Research


JSOT=Journal of the Society for the Study of the Old Testament


JSOTS=Supplement to JSOT.


JSP=Journal of Sedimentary Petrology; See SPHINX.


JSS=JSSt=J. Semit. Stud.=Journal of Semitic Studies, Manchester, 1956-

*JSS=Journal of the Siam Society, Bangkok, 1904-? [Vols. 32-35, (1940-44) issued under earlier name: Thailand Research Society]


JSSEA=Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, Toronto


JSST=JSS=J. Semit. Stud.=Journal of Semitic Studies, Manchester, 1956-


JThS=JTS=Journal of Theological Studies, London, 1899-

*JTS=Jewish Theological Seminary; see JTS NYC; 122nd Street near Broadway.


JWAG=JWalt=Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, MD.


JWH=Journal of World History=Cahiers d'histoire mondiale=Cuadernos de historia mundial, Paris, Unesco, 1953-


JWI=Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes; continues 1939- for former JWI=Journal of the Warburg Institute (1937-1939); University of London.


JZ=Judische Zeitschrift


K=Kuyunjik Collection at the British Museum.



KAI=Kanaanaische und Aramaische Inschriften, by H. Donner and W[olfgang]. Rollig, Weisbaden, [1962 and 1964 and] 1968.




KAT=Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, mit Ausdenhung auf die Apokryphen, Pseudepigraphen und das Neue Testament, neu bearbeitet von H. Zimmern und H[ugo]. Winkler. By Eberhard Schrader, Berlin, 1902-3. [B_555]


KAV=The Kashmirian Atharva‑Veda=The Kashmirian Atharva-veda (school of the P¯aippal¯adas) / edited under the auspices of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and of the Royal Eberhard-Karls-University in Tübingen, Württemberg by Maurice Bloomfield and Richard Garbe, Baltimore, 1901


KB=Keil. Bibl.=Keilinschriftliche bibliothek. Sammlung von assyrischen und babylonischen texten in umschrift und übersetzung. In verbindung mit dr. L[udwig]. Abel, dr. C[arl]. Bezold, dr. P[eter]. Jensen, dr. F[elix].E[rnst]. Peiser, dr. H[ugo]. Winckler hrsg. von Eberhard Schrader ..., Berlin, 1889-1915

*KB=[Sanskrit text] Kausitaki Brahmana


Ki=[cuneiform] tablets in the BM


KIP=The Kleine Pauly, published 1964-75; see also DNP


KlT=Kleine Texte fur Vorlesungen und Ubungen


KITLV=Koninklijk Instituut voor Tall-, Land- en Volkenkunde [Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology], Leiden.


KLIO=Klio; Beiträge zur alten Geschichte [contributions to ancient history]. [Daughter of Zeus is the Publisher of KLIO].


KMKG=Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, (Jubelparkmuseum), Brussels


KMT=KEMET: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt (San Fransisco)


Die einzige populärwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift über Ägypten in deutscher Sprache. [The only popular-scientific magazine about Egypt in the German language]



KR=Kr=BMAP=The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri, by E. [Emil Gottlieb Heinrich] Kraeling, New Haven, CT, 1953


KRI=Ramesside Inscriptions, 7 volumes, edited by K.A. Kitchen, London, 1969-


KS=Keilschriften Sargons Konig von Assyrien, by D. G. Lyon, within ASB 5, Leipzig, 1833


KTS=Die altassyrichen Texte vom Kultepe, Constantinople, 1926. By J. Lewy.


KTU=Die Keilalphabetische Texte aus Ugarit. AOAT, 24. Kevelaer, 1976.  See CTA


KUSH=Kush: Journal of the Sudan Antiquities Service / Journal of the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM) (Khartoum)


KV=VOK=Valley of the Kings=WV=Valley of the Kings, West Valley, Thebes West Bank, Thebes, Egypt; AKA KARNAK; See TMP


L=Tablets in the Telloh Collection of the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul

L.A.=From Lepsius' Abklat collection in the Berlin Museum (obscure).

And more generally:

LA=LAe=LEX='Lexikon der Ägyptologie', 7 vols., ed. W. Helck, E. Otto, W. Westendorf, 1972/5-, Wiesbaden

*LA=Les ´Arameens (A. Dupont-Sommer 1949)


LAA=Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, Liverpool


LABS=Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scribes, by S.

Parpola, NO CATNYP.


LACMA=Los Angeles County Museum of Art


LAL=LALITAVISTARA SUTRA, by R. Lal Litra [or Mitra?], Calcutta, 1877.

See [B_558]; BUDDHA


LAP=Law of the Aramaic Papyri, Oxford, 1961, by R. Yaron.


LAS=Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal I, II [within AOAT 5/1-2, Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1970, 1983] by Simo Parpola.


LAT=Latomus, Brussels


LAUR=Petri Laurembergi Rostochiensis Institutiones arithmeticae, Hamburg, 1636


LAW=Lexikon der Alten Welt; 1965


LBAT=Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts, by T. G. Pinches and J. N Strasmaier, Providence, RI, 1955.


LBDL=Late old Babylonian Documents and Letters, by J. J. Finkelstein, within YOS 13, New Haven, CT, 1972


LD=[B_235a]=Lepsius' 'Denkmäler [monuments] aus Ägypten und Äthiopien',

12 volumes comprising 6 titles, ed. K.R. Lepsius, 1849-1856


See LEPSIUS for additional information on the peculiar arrangement of this amazing collection of images.


LDAB=The Leuven Database of Ancient Books



LDG=LDG=Libyan Desert Glass [~98% silica; formed by a meteorite?; GSS] See scarab on King Tut-Ankh-Amun’s breastplate.


LdM=Livre de Morts=BOTD=Book of the Dead

LE=Lower Egypt [actually Egypt’s North]

*LE=Laws of Eshunna


LEC=Les études classiques; 1932-


LES=LEST, Bruxelles



LEST=LESt=Late-Egyptian Stories, A.H. Gardiner, 1932




LEX=LA=LAe=Lexicon Der Agyptologie, Weisbaden, 1984, W. Helck and E. Otto


LGRE=The Law of Greco-Roman Egypt in the Light of the Papyri, Warsaw reprint 1955.


LHPC=[Catholic University of] Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections World Wide



LIL=Lilavati by Bhaskata [II], by S. Dvivedi, Benares, 1910


LingAeg=Lingua Aegyptia. Journal of Egyptian Language Studies, Göttingen.


LMA=Lexikon des Mittelalters; on medieval studies


loc. cit.=loco citato=in the place cited


LOE=The Legacy of Egypt, edited by J. R. Harris, Oxford, OUP, 1950


LOK=Lokavibhaga, anonymous author, Sholapur, 1962


LRE=The Later Roman Empire, Norman, 1964.


LRL=Late Ramesside Letters and Communications", by Janssen, Jac.J., 1991.

CATNYP# *OBR+96-4441


LRS=Liepzig Rechtswissenschaftliche [Law/rights] Studien


LS=[Sanskrit] Lalitavistara Sutra; See CUBIT.


LSJ=A Greek English Lexicon, Oxford, 1940.

*LSJ [similar]=H. G. Liddell – R. Scott, “A Greek-English Lexicon” Oxford, 1968 edition.  See [B_495].


LSS=Leipziger Semitische Studien


LTWA=Library Of Tibetan Works & Archives (Centre for Tibetan Studies).



LXX=Septuagint=Pentateuch=Greek translation of the [Aramaic/Hebrew] TORAH, composed in Alexandria, Egypt, ~200 B.C.E.


M=University of Michigan Collection



MA=Middle Assyrian

*MA=Mathematische Annalen


MAA=Les Mathematiques arabes, by A. P. Youshketvitch, Paris, 1976

*MAA=Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry [International Journal] http://www.rhodes.aegean.gr/maa_journal/


MAAR=(Memoirs of the) American Academy of Rome


MACH=Machriq, Baghdad


MAD=Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary


MAES=Manchester Ancient Egypt Society



MAF=Memorial de l'artillerie francaise, Paris




MAGW=Mitteilungen [reports] der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft [society] in Wien, Vienna


MAH=[Tablets in the collection of the] Musee d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneva.

*MAH=Melanges d’Archeologie et d’Histoire. See Geneva.

See [B_435].


MAI=MAIBL=Memoires presentes par Divers Savants [scientists] a l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.




MAL=Middle Assyrian Laws; “The Assyrian Laws.”

Oxford, 1935.


MALDP=Mesoamerican Languages Documentation Project. See also PDLMA



MAN=Museo Arquelógico Nacional:[Madrid, Spain]



MAOG=Mitteilungen [reports] der Altorientalischen Gesellschaft [society]


MAPS=Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, see also APS and TAPS


MAR=Die Mathematiker und Astronomer; der Araber und ihre Werke, by H. Suter, Leipzig, 1900


MARB=Memoires de I'Academie royale de Bruxelles, Brussels


MARI=Mari. Annales de recherches interdisciplinaires, Paris.

See also ARM


MAS=Memoirs of the Astronomical Society

*MAS=Munchner Agyptologische Studien, Berlin.


MB=Middle Babylonian


MBRAS=Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. See also JMBRAS


MCM=Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, Washington, DC


MCS=Manchester Cuneiform Studies

MCT=MCT=Mathematical Cuneiform Texts; by [Otto] Neugebauer in collaboration with Abraham Sachs. See AOS

[B_259,8.5,IMG] CATNYP# *OAC (American Oriental series. V. 29)


MDAI(A)=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung [Athenische Mitteilungen] 1921-; continues: Mitteilungen [reports] des kaiserlich deutschen archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung (1886-1914)


MDAI(D)=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Station Damaskus


MDAI(I)=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Istanbul


MDAI(K)=MDAK=MDAIK=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo


MDAI(M)=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Madrid


MDAI(R)=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung


MDAK=MDAIK=MDAI(K)=[B_269]=Mitteilungen [reports] des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo


MDB=Le monde de la Bible

MDCT=Multidetector computed tomography (for mummy analysis)

MDOG=Mitteilungen [reports] der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft [society] zu Berlin


MDP=as follows:

Memoires de la delegation archeologique en Susiane (vols. 1‑5),

Memoires de la Delegation en Perse (vols. 6‑13),

Memoires de la mission archeologique en Perse (vols. 14‑30),

Memoires de la mission archeologique en Iran (vols. 31‑40),

Memoires de la delegation archeologique en Iran (vols. 41‑ )


MDT=Memoires de Trevoux


ME=Middle Empire=MK=Middle Kingdom=[at the time of the] Middle Egyptian [language]



*MED=Mayan Epigraphical Database [Project]



MEE=Materiali Epigrafici di Ebla, Rome, 1979-

MEES=Memoir of the Egypt exploration society [EES/EEF]


MEFRA=Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'École Française de Rome. Antiquité; 1971-; continues: Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire (1881-1970)


Mem.IFAO=Memoires de la mission Institut francais d’archeologie orientale, Cairo. This is not MIFAO!


MFA=Museum of Fine Arts (Boston). See REISNER


MFO=Melanges de la Faculte orientale, Beirut


MG=Morgenlandische Gesellschaft [society]


MGA=Mathematical Gazette


MGWG=Monatschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft der Judentums.


MGWJ=Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums


MH=Museum Helveticum. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für klassische Altertumswissenschaft / Revue suisse pour l'étude de l'antiquité classique / Rivista svizzera di filologia classica; 1944-


MHR=Mediterranean Historical Review; 1986-



MIFAO=Memoires de l’Institut francais d’archeologie orientale, Le Caire.


MIH=Malaya/Malaysia in History


MIO=Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Orientforschung (Berlin)


MIOG=Mitteilungen [reports] des Instituts fur osterreichische Geschichtsforschung, Innsbruck


MJGL=Magazin fur Judische Geschichte und Literatur, ed. Berliner, vol. 1,2 (1874,1875), from vol. 3 (1876)-Magazin fur die Wissenschaft des Judenthums


MK=Middle Kingdom=ME=Middle Empire=[at the time of the] Middle Egyptian [language]


MLC=Morgan Library Collection, Yale.



MM=MET=Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY City.


*MM=Mitteilungen [reports] fur Manzsammler, Frankfurt/Main


MMA=The Metropolitan Museum of Art=The Met.

*MMA=Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor MI

**MMA=M. M. A.=Mediterranean Archaeology & Archaeometry



MMAEE=Metropolitan Museum of Art, Egyptian Expedition (New York)


MMJ=Metropolitan Museum Journal (1968-)

*MMJ=Malaysia Museum Journal http://www.alang.ukm.my/kamal/mmj.htm


MMO=Museum Monographs, Philadelphia


MNRAS=Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.=Monthly Notes [or notices] of the Royal Astronomical Society


MP=Michigan Papyri, Ann Arbor

*MP=[Sanskrit text] Matsya Purana


MPAIBL=´Memoires ´present ´es `a ´l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres


MPB=Mathematische‑physikalische Bibliothek, Leipzig


MPCI=Memoire sur la propagation des chiffres indiens, by F. Woepke, within JA 6/1, Paris, 1863


MPER=MSPR=Mitteilungen [reports] aus der Sammlung der papyrus Erzerhog Rainer, Vienna, 1887-97.


MPG=Migne, Patrologia - Graeca, by J. P. Migne.

MPG [same]=Patrologiae cursus completus, series Graeca, 161 Bde., Paris 1857-1866


MQR=Modern Quarternary Research in Southeast Asia


MRAS=Les Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire (MRAH) de Bruxelles.




MRS=Mission de Ras Shamra. See also PRU


MS=Ms.=[any] Manuscript


MSA=Memoires de la societe d'anthropologie, Paris


MSL=Materialien zum Sumerischen Lexikon


MSPR=MPER=Mitteilungen [reports] aus der Sammlung der Papyrus [Erzerhog] Rainer


MSS=Mss.=mss=[any] manuscripts


MT=Mathematics Teacher

*MT=Masoretic Text; See LXX; TORAH


MTI=Mathematik Tijdschrift


MUS=Melanges de l'universite Saint‑Joseph, Beirut


MUSJ=´Melanges de ´l’Universite Saint Joseph


MVAG=Mitteilungen [reports] der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft [society]

*[same] MVAG=Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatisch-agyptischen Gesellschaft


MWCD=Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary


MWCD10=Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary; 10th Edition


N=Le Nabateen [volume I], G. Cantineau, Paris, Leroux, 1930



*NA=Nature, London


NABU=N.A.B.U.=Nouvelles assyriologiques breves et utilitaires, Paris

NACAL=North American Conference of Afroasiatic Linguistics


NADG=Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft [society] fur altere deutsche Geschichtskunde, Hanover


NAM=Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques, Paris


NAS=Newsletter for Anatolian Studies, Chicago


NAT=La Nature, Paris


NAW=Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde


NAWG=NakG= [nach=after] Nachrichten [Messages] der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu [in] Gottingen, Phil.-hist. Klasse


NB=Namenbuch, F. Preisigke, Heidelburg, 1922. [Personal names list].


**NB=N.B.=Nota bene [Latin]=A mark of special notice; literally to make good note of a fact.


NBC=The Nies Babylonian Collection, Yale.



NC=New Chronology [Babylonian]

*NC=Numismatic Chronicle, London


NCAM=National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums, Khartoum; see KUSH


NCBI=National Center for Biotechnology Information



NCBT=The Newell Collection of Babylonian Tablets, Yale.



NCEAM=Notices sur les caracteres etrangers anciens et modernes, by C. Fossey, Paris, 1948


ND=[Cuneiform] Tablets excavated at Nimrud


NEA=Near Eastern Archaeology; 1998-; continues: [BA] Biblical Archaeologist. Perspectives on the Ancient World from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean (1938-1997)



NEAEHL=New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, edited by E. Stern, 4 vols., 1992


NedTT=Nederlands theologisch Tijdschrift


NEH=National Endowment for the Humanities [USA]


NEM=Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque nationale, Paris


NERTOT=Near Eastern Religious Texts Relating to the Old Testament (W. Beyerlin



NESE=Neue Ephemeris fur semitische Epigraphik (R. Degen et al. 1972, 1974, 1978)


NFARE=Netherlands Foundation for Archaeological Research in Egypt


[funded largely by the NOSR]


NINO=Netherlands Institute for the Near East


NJPG=RLIN code for Princeton University Libraries



NK=New Kingdom=NE=New Empire


NKRA=Neue keilschriftliche Rechtsurkunden [Law/rights] aus der El-Amarna-Zeit, Leipzig, 1928 [included in ASAW 39]


NMAAE=New Mexico Alliance for Arts Education


NMCGSA=Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations Graduate

Students' Association, University of Toronto.


NMM=National Mathematics Magazine


NMS=The National Museums of Scotland



NNM=Numismatical Notes and Monographs, NY


NOSR=Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research



Nota bene [Latin]=NB=N.B.=A mark of special notice; literally to make good note of a fact.


Nott=NOTT=Christophori Nottnagelii Professoris Wittenbergensis Institutionum mathematicarum, Wittenburg, 1645


NovT=Novum Testamentum

NRV=Neubabylonische Rechts- und Verwaltungstexte (O. Kruckmann 1933)

See NRVU below

NRVU=Neubabylonische Rechts- [Law/rights] und Verwaltungsurkunden, Leipzig, 1929-1937.

See NRV.


NS=New Scientist, London


NSI=A Text-Book of North-Semitic Inscriptions (G. A. Cooke 1903)

NSR=Nordsyrisch-sudanatolische Reliefs (H. Genge 1979)


NT=New Testament


NTCS=Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies


NTS=New Testament Studies; editor: Christopher Tuckett; 1950-


NTSS=Nouvelles Tablettes sumeriennes de Suruppak au Musee d’Istanbul, Paris, 1957

NUC=National Union Catalog [B_245] Available at the NYPL.


Nv.=[cuneiform] tablets in the collections of Istanbul Arkeoloji Muzeleri


NVIC=Dutch-Flemish Institute in Cairo


NYC=New York City, The Big Apple=New York, NY!=Manhattan


NYCG=RLIN code for Libraries of Columbia University



NYPL=The New York Public Library


NYPLSOI=The NY Public Library – Ancient Egypt, Sources of Information

Compiled by Ida A. Pratt under the direction of Dr. Richard Gottheil. First published in 1925 and reprinted (Kraus) in 1969.

CATNYP# *O-OBI 80-1086


NYT=New York Times, NYC


NYU=New York University, Manhattan, NY


NZ=Numismatische Zeitschrift, Vienna


O=Ostraca or Ostracon=an inscribed pottery fragment


OA=Old Akkadian=OAkk=Oakk

*OA=OAs=Old Assyrian [use caution]

**OA=Oriens Antiquus, Rome


OAkk=Oakk=Old Akkadian


OAs=*OA=Old Assyrian


OAS=American Oriental Series/Society. See Math: prior to 1601 [B_339]


OAT=The Orkney Archaological Trust.



OB=Old Babylonian


OBO=Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Switzerland


OC=Old Chronology [Babylonian]


OE=Old Empire [Egyptian]=OK=Old Kingdom


OEAE=The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt by Donald B. Redford. Oxford University Press, 2001. (see copies from E. Garner); [B_401]


OEANE=The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East.


OED=Oxford English Dictionary


OG=Old Greek translations of other works from Jewish scriptures which have different origins and histories from the LXX materials.


OGIS=Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae (Leipzig 1903–05). By W. Dittenberger.


OI=Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, Illinois


OIAS=Oriental Institute (of the University of Chicago) Assyriological Studies


OIOC=British Library. Oriental and India Office Collections.


OIP=Oriental Institute Publications, Chicago.


OJA=Oxford Journal of Archaeology


OK=Old Kingdom=OE=Old Empire [Egyptian]


OLA=Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, See (Bomhard)/ CALENDAR. And see [R_008]


OLP=Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, see [R_008].

 See also OrLovAn.

OLUC=The Online Union Catalog


OLZ=Orientalistische Literaturzeitung (Berlin/Leipzig)

See (A. S. Bomhard)/ CALENDAR.


OMFUG=Other Music For Uplifting Gourmandize; see CBGB


OMH=Coptic Ostraca from Medinet-habu, Chicago, 1952.


OMRO=Oudheidkondige Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden

(Leiden) See INSINGER.


op. cit.=opere citato=in the work cited


Opers=Old Persian [cuneiform and/or culture]


OR=Or.=OrNS=Orientalia, Rome, see Nova Series, [B_351a,b]


OrAnt=Oriens antiquus

OrLovAn=Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta

OS=Orientalia Suecana


OSP 1=Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia Chiefly from Nippur, A. Westenholz, California, 1975
OSP 2=Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia, Copenhagen, 1987

OSU=Ohio State University (Department of Greek and Latin), Columbus, Ohio



OT=Old Testament [Tanach]; The 5 Books of Moses


OTS=Oudtestamentische Studien


OUP=Oxford University Press





P & P=Past & Present. A Journal of Historical Studies; OUP, 1952-


PA=Popular Astronomy


PAAJR=Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research


PALIMPSEST=A surviving papyrus (or other writing surface) with evidence of an erased former text. See CODEX SELDEN.

The underlying text is said to be “in palimpsest.”


PALMA 1=Papers on Archaeology from The Leiden Museum of Antiquities, Brepols Publishers,
March 2005. 335 p., Hb, ISBN 2-503-51701-3, EUR 55


PalSb=Palestinskii Sbornik


PANDECT=A manuscript which includes a complete Bible. See SINAITICUS


Pap.Lug.Bat.=PLB; See ZENON.=Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava

PAPhS=Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society; see TAPS

PARAPEGMA=A calender of ancient Greek design; plural=PARAPEGMATA; See HIBEH.


ParPass=PP=Parola del Passato (Naples)


PASP=P.A.S.P.=Pub A.S.P.=Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific=Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

*PASP=Proceedings of the ASP.


passim=scatterred references within citation


PB=[Sanskrit text] Pancavimsa Brahmana


PBS=Publications of the Babylonian Section, Philadelphia, University Museum, see also HF


PBSR=Papers of the British School in Rome; 1902-


PDLMA=Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica AKA; El Proyecto para la Documentacisn de las Lenguas de Mesoamirica; 2002; Terrence Kaufman and John Justeson, Directors


PDM=Papyri Demotic Magicae


PEF=Palestine Exploration Fund



PEFQS=Palestine Exploration Fund: Quarterly Statement


PEQ=Palestine Exploration Quarterly, London


PFT=Persepolis Fortification Tablets, by R. T. Hallock, Chicago, within OIP v. 42, 1969


PGIFAO=Papyrus grecs de l'Institut francais d’Archeologie orientale, Cairo


P.G.M.=PGM=Papyri Magicae Graecae, ed. K. Preisendanz. 3 volumes. Liepzig-Berlin, 1928, 1931, 1941.


PGP=Palaographie der griechischen Papyri [v. 1], by R. Seider, Stuttgart, 1967


PHYS=Physis, Buenos Aires


PI=The Paleography of India, by G. H. Ojha, Delhi, 1959


PIB=Paleographia lberica, Fascimiles de manuscrits portugais et espagnols du Ixe au XVIe siecle, Paris, 1912-1925, by R. Burnham


PICO=Proceedings of the International Congress of Orientalists, Moscow, 1962


PIE=Publications in Egyptology
Website of Sackler Library (Griffith collection) in Oxford
(with links to accession lists of other Egyptological libraries).

PLB=Pap.Lug.Bat. XX=P.L.B. 20 [1980]; See ZENON=Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava


PLIMPTON=PLIMPTON=George A. Plimpton Collection, Columbia University.


PLMS=Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society


PLO=Porta Linguarum Orientalum, Berlin


PM=PRMS=Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings, B. Porter and R. Moss.

(CATNYP # *O *OBI 86-874). See [See B_254]

*PM=The Palace of Minos, by Sir Arthur Evans, in 5 volumes, London, 1921-36


PMA=Periodico matematico


PMAE=Papers of the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass.


PNG=Professional Numismatists Guild


PP=ParPass=La Parola del passato. Riviste di studi antichi; 1946-


PPG=P.Pommers.=Ein frühbyzantinisches Szenario für die Amtswechslung in der Sitonie: Die griechischen Papyri aus Pommersfelden (PPG) mit einem Anhang über die Pommersfeldener Digestenfragmente und die Überlieferungsgeschichte der Digesten, ed. A. J. B. Sirks, P. J. Sijpesteijn, K. A. Worp. Munich 1996. (Münch.Beitr. 86). [o.e. Beck]


PPS=Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society


PQCS=Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society


PR=Physical Review


Pre. Sarg.=Pre Sargonic


PRMS=PM=Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings, B. Porter and R. Moss.

(CATNYP # *O *OBI 86-874). See [See B_254]


Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch.=P.S.B.A.=PSBA=Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeologie, Londres, [London], 1879-1918.


PRS=Proceedings of the Royal Society, London


PRU=Le Palais Royale d’Ugarit, Paris, within MRS, by A. Schaeffer, [1955-] 1957


PRUM=PRUM=P. Mil. R. Univ.=Papiri della R. Universita di Milano, vol. primo, by A. Vogliano, Milan, 1937. Sometimes called P. Primi or P. R. U. M. to distinguish this from the other Milanese series. Reprint 1966. See Milanesi


P.S.A. Athen.=Papyri Societatis Archaeologicae Atheniensis, ed. G. A. Petropoulos, Athens, 1939.


PSAS=Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1851-)


P.S.B.A.=PSBA=Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch.=Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeologie, Londres, [London], 1879-1918.


PSD=The Sumerian Dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania

PSI=P.S.I.=Dai papiri della Società Italiana (Greek papyri)

 (edited by G. Vitelli and others).


PSREP=Publications de la Societe royale Egyptienne de papyrologie, Cairo


PT=Pyramid Text(s); See BOTD and CT.


PTRSL=Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London


PTS=Princeton Theological Seminary


Pub A.S.P.=PASP=P.A.S.P.=Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific=Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific


PUF=Presses Universitaires de France; primarily 1957-1964


See also HGS


PUG=Papiri Universita Genova


PUMC=Papyri in the University of Michigan Collection, London and Berlin, by J. Garrett-Winter, within UMS v. 3, Ann Arbor, 1936


Q=Qur'an=Quran passage reference=Koran


QDAP=Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine


QED=Q.E.D.=quod erat demonstrandum [Latin]=that which was to be proven [or demonstrated].


QSG=Quellen [sources] und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik, Berlin


QUCC=Quaderni urbinati di cultura classica; 1966-


QV=VOQ=Valley of the Queens, across the Nile from Karnak/Thebes


RA=RAR=Rar=Revue Archeologique, Paris

*RA=Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archeologie orientale, Paris


RACE=Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid


RAD=Ramesside Administrative Documents, A. H. Gardiner (London), Oxford, 1948.


RaeR=RAeRG='Reallexicon der Ägyptische Religionsgeschichte [history of Egyptian religion]',

1952/1971, ed. H. Bonnet


RAO=Recueil ´d’archeologie orientale (C. Clermont-Ganneau 1885–1924)


RAR=Rar=RA=Revue Archeologique, Paris


RARA=Rara Arithmetica, by D. E. Smith

[B_253,8.5’s,IMG,RARE] CATNYP# *KAB (Smith, D. E. Rara Arithmetica)

“Rara Arithmetica; a catalogue of the arithmetics written before the year MDCI, with a description of those in the library of George Arthvr Plimpton, of New York, by David Eugene Smith…[D. E. Smith, 1860-1944]”

Boston, London, Ginn and company, 1908. [2 Volumes].


Rarch=Revue ´archeologique


RARE=The Rare Books Division at the NYPL at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue, Manhattan.


RARG=Reallexikon der Agyptischen Religionsgeschichte, Berlin, Bonnet.

RARP=Rechtgeschichte Aegyptens als romischer Provinz.

St. Augustine, 1973. NO CATNYP.


RAS=Royal Asiatic Society


RB=Revue Biblique, Saint-Etienne


RBAAS=Report of the British Society for the Advancement of Science, London


RCAE=Report of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Straits, Cambridge, 1907


RdE=Revue d'Égyptologie (Paris, 1933), (Cairo, 1936-51), (Paris, 1950-)


RDM=Revue des Deux Mondes, 1829-


RdSO=RDSO=Revista degli Studi Orientali, Rome


RE=Revue Encyclopedique. Elusive!

See CATNYP# ZP-PBM p. v. 36, no. 2., [B_220, B_197]

*RE=”Pauly’s Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1893. See [B_496].

**RE=Revue d’Egyptologie, Paris


REA=Revue des études anciennes, 1899-; continues: Revue des universités du Midi (1895-1898)

*REA=Revue des études augustiniennes, 1955-


Reallexikon=Reallexikon=RLA=Reallexikon der Assyrologie. Unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgelehrter. [with the cooperation of many scholars] Hrsg. Von Erich Ebeling und Bruno Meissner. Berlin 1932-_

Vol 3 has varied title=Reallexikon der Assyrologie und vorderasiatischen [near-east] Archaologie.

Editors vary. [B_289]


REC=Revue des Etudes Celtiques, Paris


Rec. de Trav.=RT=Rec. Trav.=Recueil de Travaux relatifs [collection of related works] a la Philologie et a l’Archaeologie

See CATNYP# *OBK [B_304]


REE=Revista de Estudios de Egiptologia, Buenos Aires


REG=Revue des Etudes Grecques, Paris, 1888-; continues: Annuaire de l'Association pour l'encouragement des études grecques en France (1868-1887)


REI=Revue des etudes Islamiques, Paris


REJ=Revue des etudes juives (1880-)


REL=Revue des études latines; 1923-

*REL.=religion or religious


REM=Répertoire d' Épigraphie Méroïtique


RES=Repertoire d’epigraphie semitique, Paris. (Commission du CIS 1900–5, 1907–14)


RevQ=Revue de Qumran


RevSem=RS=Revue semitique


RFCB=Reproduccion fac similar del Codice Borgia, by E. Seler, Mexico and Buenos Aires, 1963.


RFE=Recuiel de fac-similes d’ecritures du Ve au XVIIe siecle, Paris, 1904, by M. Prou.


RGG=Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handworterbuch fur Theologie

und Religionswissenschaft


RH=Revue Historique (Paris)


RHA=Revue Haute-Auvergne, Aurillac


RhM=Rheinisches Museum für Philologie; 1833-; continues: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, Geschichte und griechische Philosophie (1827-1829)


RHR=Revue de l’Histoire des Religions, Paris, 1880-?


RHS=Revue d’Histoire des Sciences, Paris


RHSA=Revue d’Histoire des Sciences et de leurs applications, Paris


RlA=See RA

RIDA=Revue Internationale des Droits [the laws] de l’Antiquite, Brussels


RILA.=Répertoire international de la littérature de l'art


RIME=The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Early Periods

RivB=Rivista biblica


RIVISTA=RSO=Rivista di Studi Orientali, Rome.


RKU=Das Recht der koptischen Urkunden, Munich, 1955, Steinwenter


RLA=REALLEXICON=Reallexicon der Assyriologie


RLG=Research Libraries Group [which runs RLIN]


RLIN=Research Libraries Information Network=The World’s Library tool


Rm=[cuneiform] tablets in the collections of the BM


RMA=Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Niniveh and Babylon I-II, London, 1900, by R. C. Thompson


RMM=Revue du Monde musulman, Paris


RMN=Reunion des Musées Nationaux de France


49, rue Etienne Marcel 75039 Paris cedex 01 France


RMO=Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden




RN=Registered Nurse

*RN=Revue Numismatique, Paris


ROM=Royal Ontario Museum



RPh=Romance Philology; 1947, editor: Jerry R. Craddock


RQ=Romische Quartalschrift fur christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte


RRAL=Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Rome


RS=RevSem=Revue Semitique

*RS=Ras Shamra [excavations at city of]


RSA=Rivista storica dell'antichita; 1971-


RSO=RIVISTA di [degli] Studi Orientali, Rome.


RSP=Rivista di studi pompeiani; 1987-


RSPT=Revue des sciences philosophiques et ´theologiques


RSS=Rivista di Storia della Scienza, Florence


RT=Rec. Trav.=Rec. de Trav.=Recueil de Travaux relatifs [collection of related works] a la Philologie et a l’Archaeologie

See CATNYP# *OBK [B_304]


RTAT=Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament (W. Beyerlin 1975)


RTC=Recueil des tablettes chaldeennes, Paris, 1903, F. Thureau-Dangin


RTM=The Rock Tombs of Meir, by A. N. Blackman, within ASE 25, London, 1924


RTP=Revue de ´theologie et de philosophie


RV=[Sanskrit text] Rgveda [Astronomy and geometry]


RVJ=[Sanskrit text] Rgveda Vedanga Jyotisa


S=Aramaische Papyrus und Ostraka by Eduard Sachau, Berlin, 1911


SA=SCAM=Scientific American


SAA=State Archives of Assyria; see [B_529]


SAAB=State Archives of Assyria Bulletin; [Padua] see [B_529]


SAES=Southampton Ancient Egypt Society



SAH=Fray Bernardino de Sahagún [died 1590 CE] para niños : el mensaje del cuervo codice Florentino / selección y versiones de Elisa Ramírez Catañeda, a partir de la edición de Josefina García Quintana y Alfreo López Austin de la Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espña de Fray Bernandino de Sahagún; see TROANO; [B_566=O_064]; FLORENTINE CODEX.


SAK=Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (Hamburg); http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/aegypten/sak.html


SAOC=Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Oriental Institute,

University of Chicago, 1931-


SARS=Sudan Archaeological Research Society


SAS=Serbian Archaeological Society. See JSAS.


SAT=Sumerian Archival Texts, Bethesda, Maryland, 1993

SAWW=Sitzungsberichte [Meeting minutes] der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Phil.-hist. Klasse (1848-)


SB=SB=Sammelbuch gr. Urkunden aus Agypten (Collection of papyri and inscriptions published in journals, or unindexed catalogues. Begun by F. Preisigke in 1915, continued by F. Bilabel and E. Kiessling) 8 volumes as of 1965. In progress.

*SB=Greichische Grammatik auf der Grundlage von Karl Brugmanns Greichischer Grammatik

**SB=Standard Babylonian

***SB=[Sanskrit text] Satapatha Brahmana


SBAW=SBAWPPH=Sitzungsberichte [minutes of meeting / proceedings] der Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften der [in] Munchen [Munich].  Philosophisch.-Philologisch und historische Klasse (1871-)


SBAWW=Sitzungsberichte. [minutes of meeting / proceedings] Akademie der Wissenschaft in Wien.


SBBAW=Sitzungsberichte. [minutes of meeting / proceedings] Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften.


SBFLA=Studii biblici franciscani: Liber Annuus


SBH=Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen nach [nach=after]Thontafeln greichischer Zeit. By G. A. Reisner. See REISNER.


SBL=Society of Biblical Literature; See JBL




*SC=SyllClass=Syllecta Classica; University of Iowa; 1989-



SCA=Supreme Council of Antiquities; Egypt; Former Secretary-General Gaballah Ali Gaballah. 2002-Secretary-General Zahi Hawass



See DFAM. See EAO.


SCAM=SA=Scientific American, NY.


SCMRE=The Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education


SDAW=Sitzungsberichte [Meeting minutes] der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) [before 1938=SPAW]


SDPI=Servizio Diocesano per i Progetti Informatici della diocesi di Cagliari



SE=Studi etruschi, Firenze [Florence]

*S.E.=Seleucid era

S.[with aigu’]E.=S[with aigu’]aka era


SEAM=Southeast Asia Microform Project (SEAM)



SEAP=Studi di Egittologia e di Antichità Puniche, Pisa.


SEG=Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum (Leiden 1923–71, Amsterdam).


SEHA=Sociedad de Estudios de Historia Antigua
[Ancient History Studies Society, Montevideo]


SEL=Studi Epigrafici e linguistici sul vicino oriente Antico, Verona

SEM=Semitica, Paris.


SEPE=(The Survey and Excavation Projects in Egypt), directed by

Dr. Gregory Mumford [currently investigating two areas: Tell

Tebilla  (East Delta) and South Sinai.]


SESH=[Publication]=SESH [from the AE God of Writing, Seshat], lingue e scritture nell'antico egitto, Milano 1999.  See pp. 130-135 for Tiradritti, Francesco, “La documentazione di Deir el-Medina.”


SF=Die Inschriften von Fara II. Schultexte aus Fara, WVD.O.G. 43, Leipzig, 1923
By A. Deimel

SGA=Storia Geofisica Ambiente, Bologna, Italy


SGKIO=Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des islamischen Orients, Berlin.


SH=Scripta Hierosolymitana, Jerusalem.


SHAW=Sitzungsberichte [meeting minutes] der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil.-Hist. Klasse


Shnaton=Shnaton - Annual for the Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Society


SHM=Sefer ha Mispar [The Book of Number]: Das Buch der Zahl, ein Hebraisch-arithmetisches Werk des Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra, Frankfurt and Main, 1895, by M. Silberberg


SIA=Sargonic Inscriptions from Adab, Yang Zhi, Changchun, 1989

SIB=Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, Rome.


SIBL=The NYPL Science and Business Library at 34th Street and Madison Avenue, Manhattan.

Mr Wyche at copycenter: P: 212 592-7072


SIP=Second [Ancient Egyptian] Intermediate Period

*SIP=Elements of South Indian Paleography from the Fourth to the Seventeenth Centuries AD, by A. C. Burnell, London, 1878.


SJ=Science Journal


SJOT=Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament


SKAW=SKAWW=Sitzungsberichte [meeting minutes] der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna [Phil.-Hist. Kl.]


SKL=Sumerian King List. See SKL


SLB=Studia ad tabulas cuneiformes collectas a F. M. Th. De Liagre Bohl pertinentia, Leiden.


Sm=[cuneiform] tablets at BM


SM1=Scripta Minoa, 1 [Sir Arthur Evans], 1909.


SM2=Scripta Minoa, 2 [Sir Arthur Evans and Sir John Myres], Oxford 1952.


SMA=Scripta Mathematica


SME=Studi medievali, Turin

*SME=[presidente de la] Sociedad Mexicana de Egiptología,
Jorge Canseco.


SMS=Syrio-Mesopotamian Studies, Los Angeles.


SNATBM=Selected Neo-Sumerian Administrative Texts from the BM, by T. Gomi, Abiko, 1990

SOAS=School of Oriental and African Studies, London.



SPA=La scrittura proto-elamica [Rome, P. Meriggi, 1971-4]


SPAW=Sitzungsberichte [meeting minutes] der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) [1882-1938; after 1938=SDAW] [Phil.-Hist. Kl.]


SPB=Studia Post-Biblica


SPBM=Syene Papyri in the British Museum. See KLIO 13 (1913).


S.P.P.=SPP=Stud. Pal=Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde, ed. C. Wessely. See Stud. Pal.,  23 volumes, reprint 1966.


SPRDS=Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, Dublin


SRJ=Sumerische Rechtsurkunden des III. Jahrtausends aus der Zeit vor der III. Dynastie von Ur, Munich, 1968, by D. O. Edzard


SS=Schlern Schriften, Innsbuck

*SS=[Sanskrit text] Surya Siddhanta


SSAW=Sitzungsberichte [meeting minutes] der Sachsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Phil.-hist. Klasse (1849-)


SSEA=Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, Canada; see JSSEA; see CSMS


STACT=State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts; See ANZU.


STM=Studia Mediterranea, Pavia


Strssbrg=Bibliothèque Nationale et Universitaire de Strasbourg



Stud. Pal=S.P.P.=SPP=Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde, ed. C. Wessely. See Stud. Pal.,  23 volumes, reprint 1966.


SUL=Texts economiques neo-sumeriens de l’Universite de Syracuse, Paris, 1983, by M. Sigrist

SUM=Sumer, Baghdad


SUMMIT=Syracuse University Library Search


SUNY=State University of NY



SVSN=Memoires de la societe vaudoise des sciences naturelles, Lausanne.


SVT=Supplement to Vetus Testamentum


SW=Semitic Writing (G. R. Driver 1948)


SWG=Schriften der Wissenschaften Gesellschaft [society] in Strassburg, Strasburg


SyllClass=*SC=Syllecta Classica; University of Iowa; 1989-



T=(inscribed) Tablet or *Tome



TA=Tablettes Albertini. Actes prives de l’epoque vandale, Paris: Gouvernement general de l’Algerie, 1952, by C. Courtois and L. Leschi and C. Perrat and C. Saumagne


TAD=Turk Arkeoloji Dergisi

*TAD=Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt Newly Copied, Edited

and Translated into Hebrew and English (B. Porten and A. Yardeni 1986 –)

Vol. 1(=A): Letters (1986); Vol. 2(=B): Contracts (1989); Vol. 3(=C): Lists,

Literary and Historical Texts (1991)


TAE=Textes ´arameens d’Egypte (N. ´Aime-Giron 1931)


TAPA=T.A.P.A.=The Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association


TAPS=Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, see also APS and MAPS


TASJ=Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Yokahama


TB=Babylonian Talmud. See TALMUD; TORAH.

*TB=[Sanskrit text] Taittiriya Brahmana


TBER=Textes babyloniens d’epoque recente, by J.-M. Durand.


TBZAW=Teubinger Beitrage Zur Altertums-Wissenschaft [contributions of ancient science]

*(Heft 33-35), RBA (Teubinger, 1940-41)


TC=Tablettes Cappadociennes, by G. Contineau. See CAPPADOCIA.

*TC=Textes ´cuneiformes du Louvre


TCAS=Transactions [published by the] Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Haven.


TCL=Textes Cuneiformes [du] [Musee] du Louvre. Paris 1910-?

See REALLEXICON [Esagila tablet].


TCLA=Travaux du Cercle linguistique d'Aix-en-Provence


TdE=Trabajos de Egiptología-Papers on Ancient Egypt, Spain, 2002-


TDOT=Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, (1974-), edited by G.J. Botterweck and H. Ringgren


TDR=Tablettes de Drehem, by H. de Genouillac, Paris, 1911


TDNT=Theological Dictionary of the New Testament


TEB=Tablettes de l’epoque babylonienne ancienne, by M. Birot, Paris, 1970.


TEG=Traditio Exegetica Graeca, Leuven, [?-1997?]


TESSA=The Egyptian Society of South Africa


See the quarterly: Shemu

The rise of the Nile flood in July marked the New Year for ancient Egyptians and this, the first season from July to October, was called akhet (inundation), to be followed by peret (time of emergence) from November to February as the Nile waters subsided. The final season from March to June was shemu, a word that came to mean "harvest".


TGP = “Greek Papyri; an introduction [by] [Sir] E.G. Turner”, Princeton, 1968.


TH=Theophanis Chronographia [Paris, 1655]


ThGl=Theologie und Glaube


TIA=Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegypticum, by H. Brugsch, Leipzig, 1883


TLA=Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae


TLAT=Third Millenium Legal and Administrative Texts in the Iraq Museum, Baghdad


TLE=Testimonia Linguae Etruscae [1968]


TLG=Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. See link:



TLSM=Transactions of the Literary Society of Madras


TLZ=Theologische Literaturzeitung


TMB=Textes mathematiques babyloniens=Textes mathematiques de Babylone, by Francois Thureau-Dangin [b. 1872-1944], Leyden, 1938. NO CATNYP.


TMH=Texte und Materialen der Hilprecht Collection, Leipzig, 1932

TMIE=Travaux et memoires de l’Institut d’Ethnologie de Paris


TMP=Theban Mapping Project




TMS=Textes Mathematiques de Suse [B_612] [Suse=Susa=Sushan=Shushan], by E. M. Bruins and M. Rutten, within MDP 34, 1961.


TOC=T. O. C.=Table of contents.


TP=Palestinian Talmud, See TB. See TALMUD; TORAH.


TQ=Theologische Quartalschrift


TRAC 2002=”[Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual] Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Kent 2002" edited by Gillian Carr, Ellen Swift and Jake Weekes.



TRAR=Trattati d’Aritmetica [by B. Boncompagni, Rome, 1857] See LIBER ABACI.


TRIA=Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin


Tru=Theologische Rundschau


TS=[Sanskrit text] Taittiriya Samhita


TSA=Tablettes sumeriennes archaiques, by H. de Genouillac, Paris, 1909


TSBA=Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.


TSM=Taylor’s Scientific Memoirs, London


TSS=Tablettes Sumeriennes de Suruppak conservees au Musee de Stamboul, Paris, 1937, by R. Jestin

TSSI=Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions Volume II. (J. C. L. Gibson 1975)


TTKY=Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlarindan. (Ankara)


TTS=Tibetan Translation Series


TUAT=Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. Vol. 1. (O. Kaiser 1982–85)


TUTA=Tablettes d’Uruk=Tablettes d'Uruk à l'usage des prêtres du temple d'Anu au temps des Séleucides, publiées par F. Thureau-Dangin, [Francois Thureau-Dangin], Paris, 1922


TWOT=Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament


TZ=Theologische Zeitschrift


TZG=Treirer Zeitschrift zur Geschichte und Kunst des Treirer Landes. (Trier)


UAA=URK=Urkunden des Aegyptischen Altertums, by G. Steindorff, Leipzig, 1904-16


UAB=University of Alabama at Birmingham


UCAE=University of California Publication of American Archaeology and Ethnology. (Berkeley, CA)


UCL=Universite catholique du Louvain [Belgique]


*UCL=University College of London; affiliated with the Petrie Museum


UCP=Unversity of California Press [or Publications] [in Semitic Philology]


UE=Upper Egypt

UEE=UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology

UET=Ur Excavation Texts, London


UF=Ug F=Ug Fo=Ugarit Forschungen


UFRJ=Federal University of Rio de Janeiro [Brazil]

See: [Antiquity Research Center] Nucleo de Estudos da Antiguidade (NEA-UERJ)




UGAAe=UGAAE=UGAA=Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde Ägyptens (Leipzig/Berlin)

[Investigations into the history and relics of Egypt]


UGE=UGE=U.G.E.=a Paris Publisher=”Union generale d’editions.”

See [B_538].


UHN=UHN=The Universal History of Numbers from Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer, by Georges Ifrah, translated from the French by David Bellos, E. F. Harding, Sophie Wood, and Ian Monk.

[Beware of numerous errors in recent translation, editing and formatting]. [B_359]


ULB=l'Université Libre de Bruxelles.



ULOS=The Union List of Serials, a great place to start looking for any acronyms or abbreviations I may have overlooked.


UM=University of Pennsylvania, The University Museum, Publications of the Babylonian Section.


UMI=University Microfilms

300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48103

UMI Dissertation Services, 800-521-0600. [www.umi.com]


UMN=Unterrichtsblatter fur Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften


UMS=University of Michigan Studies, Ann Arbor, Michigan


UNESCO=United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.



UPI=United Press International



UPZ='Urkunde der Ptolemäerzeit (Ältere Funde)' [Documents from Ptolemaic times], 2 vols., U. Wilcken, Berlin and Leipzig, 1927-1957, reprint ed., 1977 [*]. See U.P.Z.


UQAM=Univerisite du Quebec a Montreal


Urar.=Urartu or Urartian


URK=UAA=Urkunden des agyptischen Altertums [Documents of AE], ed. Georg Steindorff, Liepzig.

*URK=Hieroglyphischen Urkunden der greichischen-romischen Zeit, Kurt Sethe, Leipzig, 1904-16


URK1=Urkunden des Alten Reichs, Kurt Sethe, Leipzig, 1932-3


URK.IV=Urkunden der 18.ten Dynastie, Kurt Sethe and W. Helck, Leipzig, 1930


USBI=Unidad de Servicios Bibliotecarios y de Información


UTS=UTS=Union Theological Seminary


UVB=Vorlaufiger Bericht uber die Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka (Berlin)=Vorläufiger Bericht über die von dem Deutschen Archäologischen Institut [DAI] und der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft [society] aus Mitteln der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft unternommenen Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka


VAB=Vorderasiatische Bibliothek, Leipzig


VaP=[Sanskrit text] Vayu Purana



*VAT=Vorderasiatische Abteilung, Tontafeln, Staatliche Museen, Berlin


*VAT=Inventarbezeichnung der Tontafeln der Vorderasiatischen Abteilung der Staadlichen Museen zu Berlin

**Vat.=F. Vattioni. 1970–71. Epigrafia aramaica. Aug 10:493–532, 11:18–190


VBP=“Veroffentlichungen aus den badischen [BADEN] Papyrus-Sammlungen”

For texts at Heidelberg. See parts 1-5, 1923-1938. See VHP

Edited by W. Spiegelberg; F. Bilabel; and G.A. Gerhard.


VC=VChr=Vigiliae Christianae. A Review of Early Christian Life and Languages


VD=Verbum Domini


VDI=Vestnik Drevney [Drevnej] Istorii=AKA=Revue d'Histoire ancienne, Moscow and Leningrad


VHP=Veroffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung I



VIAT=Viator, Medieval and Renaissance Studies (Berkeley, CA)


ViP=[Sanskrit text] Visnu Purana


VJ=[Sanskrit text] Vedanga Jyotisa


VO=Vicino oriente (Rome)


VS=Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmaler der Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin


VT=Vetus Testamentum [Leiden]


VTSup=Supplements to Vetus Testamentum [Leiden]


VZZ=V.Z.Z.=Von Zahlen und Zahlworten bei den alten Agyptern, Strassburg, 1916, by Kurt Sethe.


W=Herbert Weld Collection, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford University.



WA=World Archaeology


WAS=WB. Beleg.


WATSONLINE=The Met’s (WATSON Library) Search Engine.



WB=Worterbuch d. gr. Papyrusurkunde=Worterbuch der greichischen. Papyrusurkunde, mit Einschluss der greichischen Inschriften Aufschriften Ostraka Mumienschilder usw. Aus Aegypten. I-IV, vollendet und herausgegeben von E. Keissling, Berlin-Marburg

F. Preisigke, three volumes, 1926-1931, see more current supplements by E. Kiessling (Amsterdam). Includes a geographical names list.

[See B_304]


*Wb=WB. Beleg.=WAS=Worterbuch der agyptischen Sprache, by Adolph Erman and Hermann Grapow, 6 volumes, 1971 [reprint] http://aaew.bbaw.de:88/dzaInfo/indexE.html


WCC=World Council of Churches


WdO=WO=Die Welt des Orients: Wissenschaftliche Beiträge zur Kunde des Morgenlandes, Göttingen/Wupoertal


WF=Die Inschriften von Fara III. Wirtschaftstexte aus Fara, WVD.O.G. 45, Leipzig, 1924


WIT=C. De Wit, La Statuaire de Tell el Amarna Standaard-Boekhandel S.A., Anvers (1950).


WKP=Wochenschrift fur klassische Philologie


WM=World of Mathematics=The world of mathematics; a small library of the literature of mathematics from A`h-mosé the scribe to Albert Einstein, presented with commentaries and notes by James R. Newman, NY, 1956.


WO=W.O.=Greichische Ostraka aus Aegypten und Nubien, ed. U. Wilcken, Leipzig-Berlin, 1899, 2 vols.

*WO=WdO=Die Welt des Orients (Gottingen)


Worterbuch d. gr. Papyrusurkunde=WB


WS=Wiener Studien. Zeitschrift für Klassische Philologie, Patristik und lateinische Tradition; 1879-

*WS=Wörter und Sachen. Kulturhistorische Zeitschrift für Sprach- und Sachforschung


Wsrp=WSRP=west semitic research project




WV=KV=Valley of the Kings, West Valley, Thebes West Bank, Thebes; See TMP

WVDOG=WVD.O.G.=Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft [society], Berlin, 1900-


WZKM=Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes

[Vienna’s Paper for the Art of the Near East]


WZKS=Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens


y. (preceding name of tractate)=[portion of] Talmud Yerushalmi [Palestinian]. See also b.;TP; TB; TORAH


YBC: Yale Babylonian Collection (of cuneiform tablets)



YBT=Yale [Oriental Series], Babylonian Texts


YCS=Y.C.S.=Yale Classical Studies


YES=Yale Egyptological Studies


YIVO=Institute for Jewish Research



YOS=Yale Oriental Series, Babylonian [cuneiform] Texts


YV=[Sanskrit text] Yajurveda


YVJ=[Sanskrit text] Yajurveda Vedanga Jyotisa


ZA=ZfA=Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie (und vorderasiatische Archäologie), Berlin (and Leipzig)



ZAS=AZ=ZaeS=Zeitschrift für Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Berlin

(CATNYP# *OBH+Zeitschrift);



ZATU=Zeichenliste der archaischen Texte aus Uruk, Berlin, 1987, by M. W. Green and H. J. Nissen

ZAW=ZATW=Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (Berlin)


ZDMG=Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft [society], Weisbaden; See DMG.


ZDMGSup=Supplements to ZDMG


ZDP=ZDPV=Zeitschrift des deutschen Palastina-Vereins, Leipzig and Weisbaden


ZE=Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie (Braunschweig)


ZfA=ZA=Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie (und vorderasiatische Archäologie), Berlin (and Leipzig)



ZFE=Zeitschrift fur Ethnographie. See DRESDEN; MAYA.


ZGJT=Zeitschrift fur die Geschichte der Juden in der Tschechoslovakie


ZKM=Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes (Gottingen)


ZMP=Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik


ZNW=Zeitschrift fur die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde des Urchristentums


ZNZ=Zbornik za Norodni Zivot i Obicaje juznih Slavena (Zagreb, 1896-)


ZOV=Zeitschrift fur Osterreichische Volkskunde (Vienna)=Österreichische Zeitschrift für Volkskunde, 1895-1941.


ZPE=Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bonn, 1988

(CATNYP# M-11 3965);



[source: ANE news]

* Volumes 110-123 (1996-1998) of ZPE:



ZRG=Zeitschrift fur Religiongeschichte


ZRP=Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie (Tubingen), 1877-


ZS=Zeitschrift fur Semitistik und verwandte Gebiete


ZSS=Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für rechtsgeschichte [Law/rights], romanistische Abteilung [Magazine of the Savigny donation for historical jurisprudence, novelistic department]


ZTK=Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche


ZVO=Zapiski Vostochnogo otdeleniya Rysskogo arkheologicheskogo obshchestva


ZVR=ZVRW=Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft [Law/rights]

[Magazine for comparative jurisprudence].


ZWT=Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID



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