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Last updated 12/25/05




See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


LABYRINTHS: (AE) amazing

See also BPAW, [B_200] and LEPSIUS, [B_238]!


See Hawara (complex of Amenemhet) Labyrinth info at:

This complex was described by Herodotus (II, 148) and Strabo.


See also:

Arnold D. Das Labyrinth und seine Vorbilder. MDAIK 35 (1979), p. 1-9.


Lloyd A.B. The Egyptian Labyrinth. JEA 56 [B_303] (1970), p. 81-100.


Petrie, W. M. F. Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe. London 1889.


Petrie, W. M. F. , Wainright G. A. , Mackay E. The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazguneh, London, 1912.


(as per EEF; J. Gee) see also Eric Uphill’s “Pharaoh’s Gateway to Eternity”, London, 2000.




P. Lac Moeris.= Lake Moeris, see WADI.


(as per E. G. Turner) See Birket el-Qarun.


(as per LEX) Seek work by Ridolfo Vittorio Lanzone, Turin, 1896. [B_273]


[B_273,no copies,IGNR]

CATNYP# *OBKQ+++(Lanzone, R. V. Papyrus du Lac Moeris)

“Les Papyrus du lac Moeris, reunis et reproduits en fascimile et accompagnes d’un texte explicatif, par R. V. Lanzone. 9 planches en chromolithographie; figures et carte geographique dans les texte.”

Turin, 1896.

Note CATNYP has this incorrectly listed as *QBKQ!

This is funerary and depicts numerous animal and hunting scenes.

A tome of images of reproductions of an obscure original.



LACHISH aka LAKISH: (Paleo-Hebrew and Semitic) letters; ostracon

See YADIN. See Amarna. See Arad Letters [800-600 BCE]?

[Biblical Archaeology/evidence from the ruins of Tell ed-Duweir [40 kilometers southeast of Jerusalem]. Some written during the reign of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, ca. 590 BCE.]

[Lachish; a Canaanite Bronze Age Fortress.(Persian territory)]

“These letters consist of the correspondence between the commander of the city of Lachish and an unidentified Judean outpost at the time of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion of Judah in 587 BCE.”


Bibliography of helpful texts:


Image [faded ostracon]:


On Olga Tufnell who unearthed the letters:




LAGASH: (cuneiform) tablets from ancient city of

see UHN. [B_359].



LAHUN: (AE; Hieratic) papyri

See also KAHUN.


(as per AEMT) The Lahun Papyri are associated with

Pharaohs Senusret I and II.


(as per AEB) Lahun Studies. Ed. by Stephen Quirke, Reigate (Surrey), SIA Publishing, 1998. [S. Quirke, Curator of the Petrie Museum.]


See below

LAHUN: [Math] fragments
See link to PETRIE museum item#: UC32114b
This one above is LV.3; See KAHUN
This one above is LV.4; See KAHUN
These two above not from LAHUN but interesting.





See an alternate tr.Tarthang Tulku : The Lalitavistara Sutra, the voice of the Buddha. Berkeley, Ed. Dharma

Publishing, 1983, 2 volumes, 714 p. Maha.


Lalitvistara: Development of the plays, containing the history of the Sakyamuni Buddha, from its birth to its

preaching. Paris, ED Ernest Leroux, 1884, vol. I, translated Sanskrit (Annals of the Guimet Museum, 6).

Reprint. Maha.



Lalita-Vistara Sutra

Edited by: Dr. P.L. Vaidya

Date of Publication: 1958

Publisher: The Mithila Institute of Post- Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning, Darbhanga, India.


The Lalita-vistara : memoirs of the early life of Sakya Sinha (Chs. 1-15)


*as per UHN; page 424

*Section on CUBITS; METROLOGY within Lalitavistara sutra: Buddha, age 8 years, in training by Sage Vishvamitra.

See also “Light of Asia / by Edwin Arnold.”



CATNYP# *OLWF 88-4510

Title: Tripitaka. S_utrapitaka. Lalitavisara. English.

“The voice of the Buddha, the beauty of compassion / translated into English from the French by Gwendolyn Bays.”

California, Dharma Pub., 1983

From the series: TSS.

Includes Buddha’s [Mahayana Buddhism; pre-enlightenment; legends] discourse on Metrology.

Volume 1 title page: “Lalitavistara / ‘phags-pa rgya-cher-rol-pa zhes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po’i mdo”

My archives include copies from volume one [of two], pages 210-238.

See chapter 12, “Skill in the Worldly Arts.”

Text of this chapter [12] includes these varied names for Buddha:

Prince / son of King Suddhodana / young Sarvarthasiddha / [potentially godlike] Tathagata Arhat

Buddha / [potentially as successor] Cakravartin King / [one of many] Bodhisattva / the Muni


p. 211-212:

O’ Monks. When the Prince had grown still older, King Suddhodana met in the council hall with the assembly of Sakyas. The eldest of the Sakyas spoke thus to King Suddhodana:

“Oh King, you know what has been predicted for the young Sarvarthasiddha by the brahmins who know the signs and by the gods whose knowledge is certain. If the prince leaves his family, he will be a perfect and fulfilled Tathagata Arhat Buddha. But if he does not leave home, he will be a Cakravartin King, a conqueror, a king devoted to the Dharma, posessing the seven precious jewels: the wheel, the elephant, the horse, the mani stone, the queen, the chancellor, and the counselor. He will have a full thousand sons, great heroes, powerfully built and full of courage, conquerors of great armies. Having subjugated this great earth without using weapons or force, he will govern by means of the Dharma.”

“This is why the young prince must be married.Once he is married and surrounded by women, he will know such pleasure that he will never leave his family, and in this way the succession of Cakravartin kings will surely be maintained. The Sakyas will be respected and not subject to the scorn of the frontier kings.”

[Seems inherently illogical doesn’t it. i.e. Sakyas put less faith in the worth of Enlightenment than conquest]

[compare tho Enkidu and the Harlot in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Strength of desire.]

[compare to Homer’s “Odyssey” and Herodotus “Histories” in the development of settings surrounding the interpretation of oracles.]


page 213:

All previous wise Bodhisattvas have been shown with a wife and a son…”

[This is not the first Buddha or first incarnation of Buddha?]

(Buddha describing a woman he would marry)

“A common woman who lacked good conduct or qualities such as truthfulness would never suit me. The woman who would truly delight me is modest and very pure, in body and birth, in family and race.”

[Buddha here is antagonistic towards intermarriage of races; xenophobia!]


page 215:

(King Suddhodana directing his assembly to find Buddha a good woman

“The prince does not consider the family or the race; he looks only for the virtues.”

[Apparently intermarriage is not common enough to even deserve mention!]


page 216:

(Some assemblymen recruiting Buddha’s future wife encounter Gopa, the daughter of Sakya Dandapani.)

[Gopa says]: “Brahmin, I have all the suitable qualitites. May this loving and handsome young man be my husband! The prince has spoken; let there be no delay! With an ordinary woman, he could not live.”

[She does not seem modest here!]


page 218:

(Sakya Dandapani, Gopa’s father, says to King Suddhodana)

“Lord, it is the custom of our family to give our daughters in marriage only to men skilled in the arts, and your son has grown up in luxury in the palace. If he does not excel in the arts, does not know the rules of fencing or archery or boxing or wrestling, how then can I give my daughter to him?”

(This discourse troubles the King and sets the stage for a competition)


“When the Bodhisattva learned what had transpired, he went to the king saying: “Sire, you are troubled. What is worrying you?” To which the king replied: “Young man, do not ask.”

[Buddha first somehow learned of the problem and then proceeds to nag the king into telling him what he already knows!]

“But the prince persisted: “It is always necessary to explain oneself.” Three times the Bodhisattva questioned King Suddhodana, until the king finally explained the situation. At once the Bodhisattva reassured him: “Sire, is there a single person here in the city who can rival my dexterity and skill in the arts?”

[Buddha seems to boast here.]

“… the king questioned the Bodhisattva still further: “Could you, my son, prove your skill?”

[Odd, the father does not know at all of his own son’s skills and training]


Page 219:

“On the seventh day, five hundred young Sakyas came together, and Gopa, the daughter of Dandapani, was promised as the prize for the victorious one; to the one who wins in fencing [1], in archery [2], in boxing [3], and in wrestling [4], she would belong.”

[Seems illogical as four different winners are possible; Bruce Jenner won the decathalon but not all the individual events.]


“The young Devadatta [nemesis; wild like Enkidu killing Hawara; see GILGAMESH] … envious and drunk with pride..drunk with his own strength…(kills elephant)”

[This irrational act is softened by the virtuous Sundarananda who drags the elephant corpse outside the city.]


Page 220: Bodhisattva is aware of the elephant having been dragged, maybe he saw the path where it had been dragged.


Buddha throws the rotting corpse of the elephant far away from the town with one foot.

“Upon seeing this, gods and men by the hundreds of thousands waved scarves and cheered…”

[Gods here seem especially attentive and proud]


Page 221:

“First, the young Sakyas skilled in writing [5] contended with the Bodhisattva.”

[A fifth contest]


“The Sakyas said: “Let the young man reveal his knowledge of mathematics [6].”

[A sixth contest]


Page 222:

“Forthwith Bodhisattva proposed a problem, and …(nobody could solve it).”

[Why was the question not posed by Arjuna, the resident mathematician?]


(500 Sakyas compose an unsolvable question and Bodhisattva solves it easily)


Page 223-224:

(The multitude of Sakyas declare)

“Victory to the young Sarvarthasiddha!”


Buddha’s discourse on metrology

“A hundred kotis is called ayuta;

100 ayutas=niyuta;

100 niyutas=kankara;

100 kankara=vivara;

100 vivaras=aksobhya;

100 aksobhyas=vivaha;

100 vivahas=utsanga;

100 utsanga=bahula;

100 bahula=nagabala;

100 nagabalas=titila;

100 titilas=vyavasthanaprajnapti;

100 vyavasthanaprajnaptis=hetuhila;

100 hetuhilas=karahu;

100 karahus=hetvindriya;

100 hetvindriyas=samaptalambha;

100 samaptalambhas=gananagati;

100 gananagatis=niravaravadya;

100 niravaravadyas=mudrabala;

100 mudrabalas=sarvabala;

100 sarvabalas=visamjnagati;

100 visamjnagatis=sarvasamjna;

100 sarvasamjnas=vibhutangama;

100 vibhutangamas=tallaksana”


“Now with the numeration called tallaksana one could take even Meru, the king of mountains, as a subject of calculation and measure it. And next is the numeration called dvajagravati; with the help of this numeration, one could take all the sands of the river Ganges as a subject of calculation and measure them.

Above this is the numeration called dvajagranisamani; and above this is the numeration of vahanaprajnapti; next comes the numeration called inga; above this is the numeration of kuruta.

Again above this is the numeration called sarvaniksepa, with the help of which one could take the sands of ten Ganges rivers as a subject for calculation and measure them all.

[this is ILLOGICAL!; see dvajagravati]. And again above this is the numeration called agrasara, with the help of which one could take the sands of a hundred kotis of Ganges rivers as a subject of calculation and measure them all. And again above this is the highest numeration called uttaraparamanurajahpravesa, which is said to penetrate the most subtle atoms [molecules?]. Except for a [Go to page 225] Tathagata, or a Bodhisattva who has reached the purest essence of enlightenment…”


Page 225:

Arjuna [the great mathematician further] said: “Young man, how must one proceed in the numeration which penetrates the dust of the most subtle atoms?”

(Bodhisattva discourse on sub-molecular metrology)

“Seven subtle atoms [molecules?] make a fine particle

7 fine part.=small part.

7 small part.=vatayanaraja

7 vatayanaraja=sasaraja

7 sasaraja=edakaraja

7 edakaraja=goraja

[All above are smaller than dust and most likely conceptual rather than measured [?] ]

[Is any surviving inscription reference to any of these above measures?]


7 goraja=liksaraja [7 specks of dust stirred up by a cow=1 poppy seed]

7 liksaraja=sarsapa [7 poppy seeds=1 mustard seed]

7 sarsapa=adyava [7 mustard seeds=1 grain of barley]

7 adyava=anguli [7 grains of barley [must be determinable!]=1 phalange or digit or knuckle!]

12 anguli=parva [handspan or span or half cubit!=12 fingers]

2 parva=hasta [CUBIT=2 spans!] [Greek cubit was also composed of 24 fingers=2 spans]

4 hasta=dhanu [4 CUBITS=1 arc or 1 bow; similar to our fathom=about 2 meters]

1000 dhanu=krosa (of the country of Magadha) [4000 CUBITS =~about 1 mile]

4 krosas=yohana [16000 CUBITS; see Page 231!] ~3 miles? As per translation via this link:

[Again it seems very strange to divide your metrology on base seven!]

[Stranger here than even the AE Royal Cubit]

See UHN page 424.

[How many “subtle atoms= 1 cubit?:]

(7^10) x (12 x 2) = 6,779,405,976. = 1 hasta = 1 cubit

[an inconsistent and difficult base]

A cubit divided by over 6 billion parts!

1 [span] = 3,389,702,988 subtle atoms!=1 parva

1 [finger or knuckle] anguli = 282,475,249 subtle atoms!


Cambodian Cubit=~435 mm. = 2S=24F

AE Royal=~535 mm. = 7P=28F

[above] Malayan C=2S=24F=168 B*

See Ziggurat of Babylon [Kus(h)]=30F=180B* [s(h)e or Uttetu]

[Not necessarily actual or any local barley]

Z cubit=36B=1 Sun diameter same as Persian C.

See Mayan Matl and Arabic Pik Belady.

Results from my Barleycorn analysis [American grown, dried barleycorns.]

42 B= 187mm, 210mm, 181mm

which results in a cubit of: 724 to 840 mm! TOO BIG!


Page 228:

“And as they continued in their contests – in jumping [7], in swimming [8], in running [9] and all the rest…”

(Bodhisattva demonstrates his superiority)

[seventh, eighth and ninth contests…]


“power of love and self denial”

[unique and interesting phraseology]


Page 229:

“…yet he travels to all the worlds in an instant”



“But the Sakyas said: “The people want the prince to show his superiority in feats of strength as well.”

fencing [1],

archery [2],

boxing [3],

wrestling [4]

writing [5]

mathematics [6]

jumping [7],

swimming [8],

running [9]

[1-4; 7-9, seem to be feats of strength already resolved, illogical, this statement is followed by wrestling [4]]


Page 230:

[none can defeat Bodhisattva in wrestling]


“All the beings in the ten directions,

no matter how fearsome,

he would conquer in a moment…”

[Which 10 directions?; subtle implication of a 4th and 5th axis on a graph; more likely North, East, South, West, and up and down]


Page 231:

(Dandapani [Gopa’s father] directs archery competition)


Ananda [with Nanda, was first to wrestle with Bodhisattva] sets his target at 2 krosas [8000 cubits of 16-

26 inches? Range is reasonably assumed by myself.];

2 krosas=~2.02-3.28 miles!

[Are these the krosas of the country of Magadha? Setting is city of Kapilavastu; p. 219.]

Devadatta [nemesis/elephant killer] sets his target at 4 krosas

Sundurananda [honorable elephant dragger] sets his target at 6 krosas

Sakya Dandapani [Gopa’s father competes for her - as a wife!] at 8 krosas!

Bodhisattva sets his [closest] target at 10 krosas, ~10.1-16.41 miles!

[Note the arithmetic progression]; [exaggeration of numbers as in SKL; AE barks]


Page 232:

[finding a bow of sufficient strength for Bodhisattva]

“Your Grandfather Simhahanu, the Lion’s Jaw, had a bow which is now honored in the temple of the gods..”

[Similar to Odyssey and Gilgamesh, honored / retired weaponry and/or armor set in temples] See HOMER and GILGAMESH.


Page 233:

[Buddha’s arrow strikes the Earth and causes a spring to burst forth]

Sarakupa=Spring of the Arrow

Like the area defined by the elephant Buddha tossed with one foot, legend here gives deeper meaning to geography, a universal theme.]


“Without any training, he has such skill in every worldly art!”

[How could the king’s son have no training?]


“The former Buddha Ksitigarbha previously sat just so,

shooting the arrows of egolessness and emptiness

through the sky of tranquility..”

[Former Buddha? Phrasing is lovely. Can this offer a reasonable chronology?]


P. 234-235:

[Poorly constructed and conflicting list of skills/contests in which Buddha excelled.]

See Archery and separate Use of the Bow

Game of dice?



Explanation of dreams?

The action of throwing forward, backward, and taking away? [wrestling or math?]

The science of tending the fire?

Decorating the body?

Business? [what kind of test?]

Knowledge of the riches? [a shopping test?]

Silk manufacture [a worm race?]

In dyes [a tie-dye contest?]

Working with wax [what kind of test?]

Extracting oil [what kind of test?]

Cutting of palm leaves [what kind of test? Basketweaving?]

And things. [still further skills not specified; an olympic suprathon]


Buddha wins hand of Gopa; Buddha betrothed.


[complaints from the masses of Gopa’s behavior]

“This young woman has far too lax a manner! Always she goes about unveiled!”

[Is Gopa vain or humble or both?]


Page 236:

[Gopa justifying her behavior]

“Those who speak sweet words with malice in their hearts are like a pot of poison covered over with ambrosia, like the bitter pith of wild fruit.

Drawing near such hardhearted people is like carressing the head of a serpent.”

[Beautiful phrasing]


Page 237:

[Gopa still justifying her behavior]

“The magnanimous rsis [who?],

skilled in penetrating the thoughts of others [omniscient, ESP?],

know my intentions, just as the assemblies of the gods know my conduct,

my virtues, my restraint, and my modesty. Why should I veil my face?”


Page 238:

[Gopa exhonorated by King Suddhodana; king speaking to community]

“My son is adorned with great virtues,

and his bride has qualities like his own;

the union of these two pure beings

is like the union of butter and ghee.”

[A happy ending with moral and purpose.]

"A standard cubit in Cambodia would range roughly between .40 and .50 m. I used this range to divide axes and circumferences at Angkor Wat until finally, after four months of trial and error, a very precise unit of .43545 m yielded the most consistent results." (2)

(2) Angkor Wat: Time, Space and Kingship by Eleanor Mannikka. University of Hawaii Press, copyright 1996, pp. 17-18.

[Buddha] names all the atoms in a yojana (a league roughly three miles):

seven of the finest atoms make a grain of very fine dust,

seven of which make a little grain of dust.

seven such grains make a mote you can see in a sunbeam,

seven of these a rabbit's grain,

seven rabbit's grains a ram's grain,

seven ram's grains an ox's grain,

seven ox's grains --- a poppy seed!...

he continues on to mustard-seed

and barleycorn

and knuckles, twelve of which make a span

two spans a cubit,

four cubits a bow,

a thousand bows a cry in the land of Magadha.


(as per V. Gupta; 082904; personal correspondence)
On pp 135 of "The Wonder That Was India" by A.L. Basham, it states that:

"The Yojana, like the medieval English league is an uncertain measure of distance varying from four to ten miles; but internal evidence shows that the author of Arthasastra had in mind a Yojana of about 5 miles."

On page 503, under Appendix VII, the same author gives the weights and measures as follows:

8 yavas (barleycorns) = 1 angula (finger's breadth, 3/4 inch)
12 angulas = 1 vitasti (span, 9 inches)
2 vitastis = 1 Hasta or aratni (cubit, 18 inches)
4 Hastas = 1 danda (rod) or dhanus (bow, 6 ft.)
2000 dhanus = 1 krosa (cry) or gruta (cow-call, 2 1/4 miles)
4 Krosas = 1 yojana (stage, 9 miles approx.)

Though most sources give krosa as of 2000 dandas the Arthasastra gives it as of only 1000, the yojana, which was the commonest measure of long distance in ancient India, being thus of only 4 1/2 miles. It is therefore clear that there were at least 2 yojanas, and the distances as given in the text are thus very unreliable. It would seem that for practical purposes the shorter yojana was more often used than the longer, especially in earlier times.

…note that the finger breadth is given as 3/4 inch.
So based on that a yojana will be = 4 (krosas)* (1000 dhanus)*(4 hastas)* (2 parvas)*(12 angulas)
1 yojana = 384,000 angulas
= 384,000 (3/4 in./angula)/(12 in./ft.)(3ft/yd*1760)= 4.545 miles

On Index page the same author says Yojana = 4 1/2 to 9 miles.

This is the measure in Lalitavistara. If you use this measure then there is no ambiguity. Number of atoms per angula will be 282,475,249. Since 1 angula is about 3/4 in (approx. 20 mm), number of atoms per millimeter will be 14.2 millions. Modern estimate is about 3 to 10 million atoms per mm length. So Buddhists were extremely close to modern estimate...


(as per V. Gupta; 083104; personal correspondence)
Ancient Indian mathematics websites:


[*] pursue the tr. by Bijoy Goswami.


…[more correspondence from this date]
Please use the following Sanskrit names for the size of the atoms. A parmanu in Sanskrit means an atom. Yava or Adyava means barley corn. Here it means width of a barley corn. An anguli means finger and anguliparvan may mean finger breath (also translated as finger-joint). A finger joint is about 3/4 inch. Liksa means a louse and liksarajah may mean egg of a louse (or a small particle of dandruf or something like that). I do not think Liksarajah means a poppy seed. Dhanu or Dhanuh means a bow. Hasta means a length from elbow to the tip of middle finger. [CUBIT]


7Parmanus =1anu7anu=1truti7trutis=1vatayanarajah7vatayanarajahs=1sasarajah7sasarajah=1edakerajah7edakerajahs=1gorajah7gorajahs=1liksarajah7liksarajahs=1sirsapa7sirsapas=1yava7yavas=1anguliparvan 12anguliparvans=1vitasti2vitastis=1hasta4hasta=1dhanuh1000dhanuhs=1krosa4krosas=1


Number of atoms (parmanus) in a yojana = 1.0847 x 10^14
Number of millimeter in a yojana = 7,314,468
Number of atoms/mm = 14,829,580

Actual No. of atoms/mm = 3 to 10 millions




LANGUAGE: origins




See this link to an alternate language construction proposed by Omar Rumi:


LANSING: (AE; Hieratic) papyrus

(as per AEMT) See P. Lansing in the British Museum 2nd Series.


(as per LEX) Seek work by E.A. Budge.


(as per S. Lorber) Seek ZAS 62, 1927.


As per [note 3] the following link:


3. Papyrus Lansing (4.10) continues with the observation that "the ship's crews of every house (per) they take up their freights. They depart for Syria." It is well known that, for good reason, the terms "family," "house," and "firm" overlapped in antiquity (ESoA, Chap. 2.D). Obviously, then, there were nonroyal trading "houses" operating in Egypt, Perhaps, the reference includes trading enterprises under the auspices of temples, but there is no reason to exclude independent firms. Another text (Pap. Bibl. Nat. 211.18) locates a merchant in the "house" of the scribe of contracts Mery (Janssen). Sike, chantress of (the god) Thoth, instructs her correspondent to go to the "merchant" (shewty) and have his oath annulled (Caminos, p.26). The point of Sike's letter is obscure but the merchant has no named institutional connection.


(as per M. Tilgner; EEF)

Papyrus Lansing = BM 9994 is named after Reverend Gulian Lansing (1825-1892) acquired from him by the British Museum in 1886. Alan H. Gardiner published this papyrus again in

“Late-Egyptian Miscellanies.”

[LEM], Bruxelles, 1937 (Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca, VII), pp. 99-116. Gardiner only remarked in the introduction, p. XX: "The papyrus was acquired by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1886 through the agency of the American missionary Dr. Lansing."

The original Hieratic text was published in: Ernest Alfred T. Wallis Budge (ed.), Facsimiles of the Egyptian Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum, 2nd series, London, 1923, pls. XV-XXX. According to Erman/Lange cited above the papyrus had been in a small pot, which also contained "some kind of salt" causing the papyrus to be soaked in salt, especially at the margins, and the text to be faded A German translation is provided by Erman and Lange; English translations

can be found in Ricardo A. Caminos, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, London, 1954, pp. 373-428 and more accessible in Lichtheim II, pp. 168-175.

See also:

LAe IV, 718, s.v. "Papyrus Lansing"

LAe V, 737-739, s.v. "Schuelerhandschriften" [apprentice texts]


(as per F. Rocchi; EEF)

[P. Lansing is] dated to the end of 20th dynasty by various elements (name of the scribe, names of private persons, names of gods, hieratic palaeography etc.), and doesn't come from Akhenaten's reign. It measures 4.65 m in length and 20.5 cm in height. The Theban provenance is inferred from various titles of persons relating them to the temple of Amun-Ra. It has palimpsest traces (accounts) but these again should be of 20th dyn.

A rather long article about the papyrus was

written by Blackman and [Thomas Eric] Peet in JEA 11 (1925), 284.



LARSA: (ancient) city

See UHN: p. 150: re LARSA/SENKEREH town source of mathematical cune text [Louvre, AO 8862, side IV] ZERO as a blank space. See URUK.



LATIN: collections

[B_564=Y_014,rvw] CATNYP# *GBI+ (Lowe, E. A. Codices Latini antiquiores) [Sent to the ANNEX; a scary NYPL procedure that requires a minimum of 24 hours notice for access; as of 042003; this can wait]

SUMMIT# BT1390 .C7 1955 [always could request this but 12 volumes is a lot to ask.]

“Codices latini antiquiores : a palaeographical guide to Latin manuscripts prior to the ninth century /..”

Germany, 1982.

All items [in 12 comprehensive volumes] 900 BCE or prior.


LAURENZIANA: (Greek) papyri

P.Laur.: Dai Papiri della Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

P.Laur. 1.1. Copy of a petition to the prefect:

(Greek; AD 192; Arsinoite)



CATNYP# *OC+ 86-2145

BOBST# PJ2196 .B53 1984 Oversize

“Papiri Laurenziani copti (P. Laur. V) / [a cura di] Gerald M. Browne.”

Firenze, 1984.

From the series: Papyrologica Florentina, v. XIII.

Greek letters, contracts, Orders, receipts, leases, lists.

See plates.

Only one piece [item 193] can be dated with any degree of accuracy to ~708-9 [C.E.]


LAUSANNE: (AE; Hieratic) papyrus; University of

[B_180a,8.5,IMG, v. 1] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979, v. 1.

See work by Michael Valloggia, “Le P. Lausanne No. 3391”.

Hieratic, parallels P. Louvre 3284.

University of Lausanne.



LAW: You know who you are.



[B_368,HOUSE,alt via TAPS,RARE] CATNYP# *KGW 1799 (United States. Constitution of the United States of America)

“The constitution of the United States of America, with all the amendments; and Gen. Washington’s paternal address to the people of the United States, on his resigning the presidency…”

Baltimore, Printed for Thomas Henry, by Warner and Hanna, 1799.

At rare books; NYPL.

See alternate pamphlet by TAPS.


[B_368] original (1799) includes:

[No copying permitted from the RARE collection at NYPL]

“…the acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me, have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty, and to a deferance for what appeared to be your desire.  I constantly hoped, that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives, which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn.”

“The disorders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty.”

“As a very important source of strength and security cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible; avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remebering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it; avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertions in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burthen [burden] which we ourselves ought to bear.”

“Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue?”

“17 September 1796”


Internet copyright LAW:


Ancient law:

Required Reading

Robert Wenke, "The Origins of Cultural Complexity in Africa", in Patterns in Prehistory 475-487 (1980)

John A. Wilson, "Authority and Law in Ancient Egypt", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1959)

Aristide Theodorides, "The Concept of Law in Ancient Egypt", in The Legacy of Egypt (John Richard Harris, ed., 2nd ed., 1971)

"Edict of Harmheb", in James H. Breasted, 3 Ancient Records of Egypt (1935)

"Tomb of Rekmire", in James H. Breasted, 2 Ancient Records of Egypt (1935)

"Records of the Royal Tomb-Robberies", in James H. Breasted, 4 Ancient Records of Egypt (1935)

"The Protests of the Eloquent Peasant", in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (J.B. Pritchard, ed., 1950)

Recommended Reading

Cyril Aldred, "More Light on the Ramesside Tomb Robberies", in Glimpses of Ancient Egypt (John Ruffle et al., eds., 1979)

S. Allam, "Legal Aspects in the Contendings of Horus and Seth'", in Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. Gwyn Griffiths (Alan B. Lloyd, ed., 1992)

Rudolf Anthes, "The Legal Aspect of the Instruction of Amenemhet", 16 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 176 (1957)

John Baines, "Literacy in Ancient Egyptian Society", 18 Man 572 (1983)

Ellen Dailey Bedell, Criminal Law in the Egyptian Ramesside Period, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Brandeis University, 1973

Aylward M. Blackman, "Oracles in Ancient Egypt", 11 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 249 (1925)

G.P.F. van den Boorn, "Wd-ryt and Justice at the Gate", 44 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1 (1985)

G.P.F. van den Boorn, The Duties of the Vizier: Civil Adminstration in the Early New Kingdom (1988)

A. de Buck, "The Judicial Papyrus of Turin", 23 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 152 (1937)

J. Capart, A.H. Gardiner and B. van de Walle, "New Light on the Ramesside Tomb-Robberies", 22 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 169 (1936)

Jaroslav Cerny, "The Will of Naunakhte and the Related Documents", 31 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology29 (1945)

Robert C. Ellickson and Charles DiA Thorland, "Ancient Land Law: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel", 71 Chicago-Kent Law Review 321 (1995)

C.J. Eyre, "Crime and Adultery in Ancient Egypt", 70 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 92 (1984)

Alan H. Gardiner, "A Lawsuit Arising from the Purchase of Two Slaves", 21 Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 140 (1935)

Alan H. Gardiner, The Inscription of Mes: A Contribution to the Study of Egyptian Judicial Procedure (1905)

J. Gwyn Griffiths, "Isis as Maat, Dikaiosune, and Justitia", in Hommages a Jean Leclant, vol. 3 (etudes isiatiques) (Catherine Berger et al. eds., 1994)

T.G.H. James, Pharoah's People: Scenes from Life in Imperial Egypt (1984) (esp. chapters 2,3)

David Lorton, "The Treatment of Criminals in Ancient Egypt", 20 Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 2 (1977)

A. McDowell, Jurisdiction in the Workman's Community of Deir el-Medina, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvia, 1987

Richard A. Parker, A Saite Oracle Papyrus from Thebes (1962)

T. Eric Peet, The Great Tomb-Robberies of the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty (1930)

P.W. Pestman, "The Law of Succession in Ancient Egypt", 20 Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 2 (1977)

P.W. Pestman, Marriage and Matrimonial Property in Ancient Egypt (1961)

Kurt Pfluger, "The Edict of King Haremhab", 5 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 260 (1946).

J. Pirenne, Histoire des institutions et du droit prive de l'ancienne Egypte (1932-5)

J. Pirenne and A. Theodorides, Droit egyptien (1966)

Gay Robins, "The Economic and Legal Position of Women", in Women in Ancient Egypt (1993)

Nili Shupak, "A New Source for the Study of the Judiciary and Law of Ancient Egypt: 'The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant'", 51 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1 (1992)

Diodorus Siculus, On Egypt (Edwin Murphy, trans., 1985)

H.A. Szubin & Bezalel Porten, "Royal Grants in Egypt: A New Interpretation of Driver 2", 46 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 15 (1994)

Stephen E. Thompson, "The Anointing of Officials in Ancient Egypt", 53 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 15 (1994)

Vincent Tobin, "Ma'at and Dike: Some Comparative Considerations of Egyptian and Greek Thought", 24 Journal of the American Research Center of Egypt 113 (1987)

Raphael Ventura, "More Chronological Evidence from the Turin Papyrus", 42 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 271 (1983)

Russ VerSteeg, "Law in Ancient Egyptian Fiction", 24 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 37 (1994)

S.P. Vleeming, "The Days on Which the Knbt Used to Gather", in Gleanings from Deir el-Medina (R.J. Demaree and J.J. Janssen eds., 1982)

John A. Wilson, "The Oath in Ancient Egypt", 7 Journal of Near Eastern Studies 129 (1948)

All the above and more as per this link:


[B_598, alt HOUSE]
CATNYP# **QDM (Dostoyevski, F. M. Crime and punishment. 1957)
“Crime and punishment.”
London, Folio Society, 1957.
In house copy is a Harper’s Publishing edition.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky b. 1821, d. 1881.

LAW: and the AE amt-pr

(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012***=B_191,JH], ELEPHANTINE.

See Papyrus Kahun II, I (MK; XII dynasty, 2000-1788 BCE.)

Legal content. See DJE I, pp. II ff.

Some of the legal documents included the amt-pr, a deed which recorded the transfer of property from one individual to another. One such will by a man named Mery transferred his priestly office and title of his property, house and contents, to his son, who would take on his office.

Other wills refer to members of one family. For example, the will of Sahu, an architect, leaves all his property and his slaves to his brother Uah, also an architect and priest of Sopdu, the falcon-god. Uah in turn left a will, mentioned above, which transfers this property to his wife, giving her the freedom to pass it on to any of their children.



The legal and official documents may be classed according to their titles: the amt-per or deed recording the transfer of property from one person to another either prospectively or immediately, and those from Kahun, which, though sometimes as fragile


LAW: resources



LDG: (Libyan) desert glass

(as per EEF; G. Negro)

-Boccazzi A., V. de Michele e G. Negro, 1991. Un'esplorazione

geo-archeologica nel Great Sand Sea (Egitto). Sahara, 4: 89-102.


-Bokelmann K., 2002. Einige Libyan-Desert-Glass-Artefakte des Atérien

aus der Glass Area in Südwest-Ägypten. In: Tides of the Desert - Gezeiten der Wüste, Köln: Heinrich-Barth-Institut, p. 67-73.


-Michele (de) V. (ed.), 1997. "Silica '96" Proceedings. Meeting on

Libyan Desert Glass and related desert events. Segrate: Pyramids Ed.


-Michele (de) V., 1999. The "Libyan Desert Glass" scarab in

Tutankhamen's pectoral. Sahara, 10.


-Monod Th. (sous la direction de) et J.F. Sers, 1994. Désert Libyque.

Paris: Arthaud.


-Negro G.,  1991. Il Great Sand Sea e la sua  esplorazione  (Sud-ovest

dell'Egitto). Sahara, 4: 71-88.


-Negro G. e M. Damiano-Appia, 1992-93. Il "Silica Park": un centro di

lavorazione del LDSG nel Great Sand Sea. Sahara, 5: 105-108 + pl. S.


-Oakley P.K., 1952. Dating the Libyan Desert Silica-Glass. Nature, 170,4324: 447-449.


-Roe D.A., J.W. Olsen, J.R. Underwood Jr and R. Giegengak, 1982. A handaxe of Libyan Desert glass. Antiquity, 56: 406-410.


-Spencer  L.J.,  1939. Tektites  and  Silica-Glass.  Mineralogical

Magazine, 25, 167: 425-440.


For "Sahara" magazine see:


For Libyan Desert Glass general informations see also:

and click the "libyan desert glass (LDG)" link.


LEARNING: a world of contact information

[B_577,8.5,museum contacts] CATNYP# *O-*OAA 87-1749

“The World of Learning; 53rd Edition; 2003.”

Accessed 041803 re: KESKINTO query.

Trial service:

German Mathematical Association:

Pres: Prof. Dr. P. Gritzmann

Phone: (30) 20372306

Fax: (30) 20372037



LEE: (AE?) papyrus

See Rogers.

See Amherst.



LEEDS: (Greek) papyri from Leeds City Museum

P.Leeds Mus.: A Selective Publication and Description of the Greek Papyri in the Leeds City Museum

P.Leeds Mus. 5.: (Greek; AD 166-172)




Conradus Leemans, 1809-1893.


[B_244,8.5=B_149,p. 64*,ref]

CATNYP# *OBKM (Leemans (Conrad). Description)(Locked cage) Rijksmuseum van Oudheden.

“Description raisonee des monumens egyptiens du Musee d’Antiquities des Pays-Bas, a Leide, par C. Leemans.”

Leide, 1840.

See CUBIT info, on page 135.

“Talc, Coudee Egyptienne”,

7 palms, dedicated to Phtah-Socar-Osiri.

.530 meters.

“Bois, Coudee Copte”, 6 palms, 24 fingers.

.540 meters.



CATNYP# BFO (Leemans, C. Boro Boedoer op het eiland Java)

Title: “Boro Boedoer op het eiland Java, afgebeeld door en onder toezigt van F. C. Wilson, met toelichtenden en verklarenden tekst, naar de geschreven en gedrukte verhandelingen van F. C. Wilsen, J. F. G. Brumund en andere bescheiden, bewerkt en uitgegeven op last van vijne excellentie den minister van kolonien, door Dr. C. Leemans…”

Leiden, 1873

Indonesian antiquities.


[B_274,no copy,RARE] CATNYP# STUART 252

“Aegyptische monumentum van het Nederlandsche Museum van oudheden te Leyden …” Leyden, 1839-46.

By Conradus Leemans

At Humanities-rare books; NYPL. Special permission required.

First access to this collection, 5/31/01;

Long reproductions of BOTD papyri (and tr./commentary);

The Weighing of the Heart (Interesting and unusual in nature);

in two volumes; 2nd volume is dated 1846; Book 1 see 1-1839: PAP. A N. 65 (R) PL C  #3 which seems to be a coded entry [ENIGMATIC]. Coptic or Newer?

Book 1, see part two [1842]: Plate XI I A 902-1039 e. in which Horus’ statue’s beautiful face is composed with the NFR [ZERO…] as a nose. Item 971.

Book 2, see [1846]: Plate LVIII see item 228 a vase with a metrological inscription [25 units?].

Book 2, see [1846]: Plate LXI see item 328; container with a metrological inscription [7 1/4 units?].



CATNYP# *OBQ+++(Leemans, C. Aegyptische hieroglyphische lijkpapyrus)

“Aegyptische hieroglyphische lijkpapyrus van het Nederlandsche Museum van oudheden te Leyden …”

Leyden, 1882.


[B_276,rvw] CATNYP# BGTM+ (Leemans, C. Animadversiones in Musei antiquarii Lugduno-Batavi)

“Animadversiones in Musei antiquarii Lugduno-Batavi inscriptiones Graecas et Latinas, a L. J. F. Janssen … editas. Scripsit Conradus Leemans … Additur tabula.”

Lugduno Batavorum, apud H. W. Hazenberget socios, 1842.

[B_432,rvw] CATNYP# *OCS (Leemans, W. F. Foreign trade in the old babylonian period)
“Foreign trade in the old Babylonian period, as revealed by texts from southern Mesopotamia.”
Leiden, 1960.


LEGON: (Author) John Legon




LEIDEN: (Ptolemaic; demotic) papyri and (Greek) ostraca

at museum [Leyden]

Moeller reference. LEIDEN J.32.




(as per Y. Koenig) Seek Leiden #345 and #348 (Demotic/ Magical).


(as per LEX) #343 and 345 are magical, seek work by Adhemar Massart, Leiden 1954.


[B_018,OS,IMG] CATNYP# *OBR+96-4441) "Late Ramesside Letters and Communications", by Janssen, Jac.J., 1991


(as per 2terres) LEIDEN I 350; a ships log.


[B_020,IMG,TRNC] CATNYP# *OBR++(Gardiner, A.H.) LEIDEN #344 recto, Admonitions of a sage by Gardiner,1969


(as per CATNYP) see JEA 1 [B_303], 56 tablets, Dyn 18-26?,  Boeser, Beschr.D.AEG., Sammlung in Leiden., Denkmaler des nuen reichs III.


[B_035,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBKQ 96-1901, "Die "Admonitions" Pap. Leiden I 344 recto / Wolfgang Helck, 1995.

No copies made.


(as per B.P. Grenfell) see P. Leyden O from reign of Ptolemy Alexander = Calendar (math). Also, note: P. Leyden I, a docket on a demotic contract from the reign of Philadelphus.


See this link to the Leiden Museum.


See this link to the DEM database via Leiden University.


(as per AEMT) See also Demotic Mythus P.


(as per AEB) Bommas, Martin, Die Mythisierung der Zeit. Die beiden Bucher uber die altagyptischen Schalttage des magischen P. Leiden I 346, Weisbaden Harrassowitz Verlag, 1999.


(as per F. Chabas) P. I. 346 Leiden mentions epagomenal days,

and P. #346 is AKA:

The Book of the end of the Year, and includes;

The Book of 5 Days.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Leiden X and P. Holmiensis include chemical and alchemical prescriptions. Both from the collection of Consul Anastasi.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Leiden G. probably has the autograph of:

Ptolemy Alexander I, from ~99 BCE.


(as per Elke Roik) Pursue P. Leiden, Amonshymnus.

A hymn of nilometers? See ZAS 42, 1905, 26-8.

Not at NYPL but available at the WILBOUR Library.

Must be photographed as original is crumbling.

Not critical to my efforts. Ignored.


As per [note 4] the following link:


4. That an individual might own a cargo vessel is hinted in the late third millennium by the inscription of Qedes of Gebelein and proven by the Edict of Horemheb dating from the second half of the fourteenth century. Papyrus Leiden 344 (The Admonitions of Ipuwer) in pursuing its theme of reversal of fortune attests to the private ownership of ships : "Behold, he who never built for himself a boat is (now) the possessor of ships, he who possessed the same looks at them, (but) they are not his" (Shupak). There are also Ramessid texts in which individuals pay for the use of cargo ships. Papyrus Anastasi IV demonstrates that even a sea-going vessel was not beyond the means of a rich man. A rich man is represented as using his ship to bring goods from Syria to Egypt. Castle notes that while the document is a panegyric [formal/elaborate praise] rather than an administrative document, it may be argued that the scribe is obliged to paint his complimentary picture within the limits of what was socially possible. No office is attributed to him [the wealthy individual], although this might be expected in a panegyric [praise] if he were understood to hold some official position.


[B_029,IGNR] CATNYP# *MAVZ (Leyden) 82-467

"Rijksmuseum van Oudheden= National Museum of Antiquities / written by the staff of the museum ; with photographs by M. J. Vinkesteyn ; edited by H. D. Schneider.”

Haarlem, 1981

No copies made.




O. Leid.: (Greek/Demotic; 255 bce)


P.Leid.Inst.: Papyri, Ostraca, Parchments and Waxed Tablets in the Leiden Papyrological Institute (P. L. Bat. 25)

P.Leid.Inst. 13.: (Greek)




AMONSYHMNUS in ZAS 42, 1905 microform at NYPL.
[B_608, 8.5,ZAS] CATNYP# *ZAN-*O24
Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde
Volume 42, 1905.

See JEW.
Page 12-42 article and analysis by Alan H. Gardiner.
“Hymns to Amon from a Leiden Papyrus.”
For more ZAS see [B_008]

Paranomasia=play on words
Ex: “You’ll be laughing out of the other side of your head.”


LEINWAND: (Author) 30th Dynasty; hieratic papyrus

NO CATNYP Moeller reference.

Math content.


[W_014,rvw,hold] (Author Nancy Westneat Leinwand)

WATSON# Microfiche Ca MF 117. "A study of Anatolian weathergods of the Old Assyrian colony period [microform]. 1984?

The relevance of this text has yet to be determined.



LEIPZIG: (Greek) papyri from University of

P.Leipz.: Die griechischen Papyri der Leipziger Universitätsbibliothek

P.Leipz. 1.: (Greek; AD 244; from MEMPHIS)

Accounts; drachmas.


See also LIPS.



LEITOURGIA: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Leit. = Leitourgia Papyri, ed. N. Lewis, Philadelphia, 1963. At Geneva?

P.Leit. 1.: (Greek; AD 160; Oxyrhynchite)

Accounts; drachmas.



LENINGRAD: (AE; Hieratic) papyrus; codices

P. Leningrad 1116A see MOSCOW


[B_033,Moscow,PIX r05.2]


(as per AEB) See accounts on L 1116 A & B Verso.


(as per EEF) The Papyrus Leningrad, 1116A, seems to be an older

text of "instructions" for King Merikare, copied in the New Kingdom by

a certain Khaemwaset. (18th Dynasty as per J. Quack)

How Old is the Manuscript?

The manuscript was written around the year 1010 C. E. It was probably written in Cairo, and later sold to someone living in Damascus.

Where is the Original Manuscript?

Today it is in St. Petersburg, Russia, in the Russian National Library (Saltykov-Shchedrin), where it has been since the mid-1800's. When the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center and West Semitic Research photographed the Bible in 1990, the city was still called Leningrad. The name of the manuscript continues to be called the Leningrad Codex in order to avoid confusion.


AKA Codex Leningradensis.



LEONARDO DA VINCI: Renaissance master architect; sculptor; painter, inventor..

Leonardo da Vinci, §II, 4: Architecture

Codex Balduini (Koblenz, Landeshauptarchv, Inventory IC, no. 1)



Codex Trivulziano (Milan, Castello Sforzesco)

Leonardo da Vinci, §I, 2: First Milanese period, c 1482–99



LEOPOLD: papyrus

(as per CATNYP) Housed at the Pierpont Morgan Library.


[B_054,rvw] CATNYP# *OBL+++ (Papyrus Leopold II aux Musees royaux), "Papyrus Leopold II", NY City, 1939. By Jean Capart. See also AMHERST.


[W_022,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 C17 F. Same text as above.


(as per LEX) See P. Leopold II in JEA 22 [B_303], 1936.



LEPSIUS: (Author)

Karl Georg Richard Lepsius 1810-1884.

AKA Justus Lepsius.

Sometimes I just call him “Leppy”.


See the masterful reference text by Ibrahim Hilmy.

[B_171,REF] See Lepsius.


(as per L. Bailey) See this unassigned text. No CATNYP.

“Giants of Egyptology: Karl Richard Lepsius”

By Dennis C. Forbes, KMT (5:1)


See this:


See [B_200, BPAW]


[B_238,BPAW copies only] CATNYP # *OBLF (Lepsius. Uber den Bau der Pyramiden)(Locked Cage)

“R. Lepsius, uber den Bau der Pyramiden : Cairo im Mai 1843 ;

Entdeckung des Labyrinths in Agypten durch den Prof. Lepsius.”

[S.1. : s.n., 1843?]

See Plates. See BPAW


[B_080,JH,NO IMG,8.5] CATNYP# PCN (Lichtorn, C. Von Lepsius entdeckte alphabetische lautsystem der hebraischen buchstabenfolge), "Das von Lepsius entdeckte ... buchstabenfolge in der vollstandig durchgreifenden harmonie seiner organisation erwiesen von C. Lichthorn." Bresleau, Druck von C. H. Storch und comp.,1861.

Note: A review of Acrostics AKA Acrostichon.


[B_081,rvw] CATNYP# *OBLF+ 90-13448, "The Brick Pyramid at Abu Rawash number "I" by Richard Lepsius: a preliminary study / by Nabil Swelim ; photography by Tarek Swelim."

Alexandria 1987. Keyword search Abu Rawwash.


*See also CUBIT [B_149].


LD=[B_235a]=Lepsius' 'Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien',  12 volumes, 6 titles, ed. K.R. Lepsius, 1849-1859 (Berlin)

This is a twelve volume set and the volumes include:

Abth. 1, Bd. 1. Topographie und Architektur. - Bl. 1-66 [plate numbers]

Abth. 1. Bd. 2. Topographie und Architektur. - Bl. 67-145

Note: Leppy refers to (both above) as DENK I.

Note: [Bd.] is a binding or volume number!


Abth. 2. Bd. 3. Denkmaler des Alten Reichs. - Bl. 1-81

Abth. 2. Bd. 4. Denkmaler des Alten Reichs. - Bl. 82-153

Note: Leppy refers to (both above) as DENK II.


Abth. 3. Bd. 5. Denkmaler des Nuen Reichs. - Bl. 1-90

Abth. 3. Bd. 6. Denkmaler des Nuen Reichs. - Bl. 91-172

Abth. 3. Bd. 7. Denkmaler des Nuen Reichs. - Bl. 173-242

Abth. 3. Bd. 8. Denkmaler des Nuen Reichs. - Bl. 243-304

Note: Leppy refers to (all 4 above) as DENK III.


Abth. 4. Bd. 9. Denkmaler aus der Zeit der greichischen und romischen Herrschaft. - Bl. 1-90

Note: Leppy refers to (the above) as DENK IV.


Abth. 5. Bd. 10.  Athiopische Denkmaler. -Bl. 1-75

Leppy refers to this as DENK V.


Abth. 6. Bd. 11.  Inschriften mit Ausschluss der hieroglyphischen. -Bl. 1-69

Abth. 6. Bd. 12.  Inschriften mit Ausschluss der hieroglyphischen. -Bl. 70-127

Leppy does not seem to refer to these as DENK VI.

He might though.


(as per M. St. John)

Abth. = Abteilung = Part  (old German spelling was abtheilung)

Bd.   = Bänd = Volume

Bl.   = Blatt = print, drawing, engraving = plate

Dankmäler = Monuments

The 'Parts' are comparatively logical divisions:

Part I   : Geographical and Architectural Features

Part II  : The Old Kingdom

Part III : The New Kingdom

Part IV  : The Greek and Roman Period

Part V   : Ethiopia

Part VI  : Inscriptions without hieroglyphs (Drawings)

So, taking the [B_149] page 11 footnote 1 as an example, the correct citation,

in English, would be:

Lepsius, Monuments of Egypt and Ethiopia, Part II, (Volume 3), Plate 33,

drawing g.



[B_235a,TOO BIG to copy] CATNYP# *OBKG+++(Lepsius, K.R. Denkmaeler aus Egypten und Aethiopien)

“Denkmaeler aus Egypten und Aethiopien : nach den Zeichnungen der von seiner Majestat dem Koenige von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm IV nach diesen Landern gesendeten und in den Jahren 1842-1845 ausgefuhrten wissenschaftlichen Expedition…/herausgegeben und erlautert von C.R. Lepsius.”

Berlin, 1849-1856.

Great BIG stuff. Volumes described above.

(from page 34 of [B_149]) Denk. IV, 74, c

This is #74 plate, drawing c,  in the ninth volume [Bd. 9].

Note: This shows six or more documented uses of the remen glyph(s).

Inscribed on the west walls at Philae.


(as per M. Tilgner) The facsimile edition of Lepsius, Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien as described in my [EEF] posting of June 29, 2001 earlier will

cost DEM 6,000 (a 25 % reduction of the original price) according to

the publisher.


Please write to:

Biblio Verlag

Postfach 1175

D-49136 Bissendorf



tel.: +49 5402 641 720, fax: +49 5402 641722



mentioning my [M. Tilgner] name or "LD initiative".



[B_235b,8.5’s and OS] CATNYP# *OBKG+++(Lepsius, K.R. Denkmaeler aus Egypten und Aethiopien. Erganzungsband)

“Denkmaeler aus Egypten und Aethiopien herausgegeben und erlautert von Richard Lepsius. Erganzungsband / herausgegeben von Eduard Naville ; unter Mitwirking von Ludwig Borchardt ; bearbeitet von Kurt Sethe.”

Leipzig, 1913.

Author is Edouard Naville, 1844-1926.

See plate XXIXb image from tomb LS22.

Hunting scene.

Plates from many graves at Saqqara and Giza.


[B_235c,8.5’s and OS] CATNYP# *OBKG+++1897-1904 text. 5 volumes.



Aegypten und Aethiopien


herausgegeben von

Edouard Naville

unter mitwirking von Ludwig Borchardt

bearbeitet von

Kurt Sethe

erster band

unteraegypten und Memphis”

Leipzig, 1897.


See page 176 for clarification of [B_149] p. 12 error.

See introduction by Naville.


[B_149,COPY ALL,IMG] Not found in Catnyp computer records.

Instead use old catalog; volume 430, page 483.

CATNYP# VBDB “Die Alt-Aegyptische Elle und Ihre Eintheilung”,

Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1865). by Richard Lepsius.

This rare text is only available (in Manhattan) at the NYPL Science Library.

Sadly, I report plate one is absent.

Plates two through four are present but damaged.

I found a better preserved copy at the Wilbour Library (Brooklyn Mus).

This included plates four and five only.

I still need good full size copies of plates two and three.

See the new work edited by Michael St. John; [B_279].


[B_279=W_083,HOUSE] CATNYP# *OBL+01-7512=WATSON# 539 L552

“The Ancient Egyptian Cubit and its Subdivision : with two appendices and five plates =Die Alt-Agyptische elle and Ihre Einthelung / by R. Lepsius ; freely translated by J. Degreef ; edited by Michael St. John ; and a supplementary, expanded bibliographical notes on the works cited by Lepsius, and brief biographical notes on their authors, compiled by Bruce Friedman [myself] and Michael Tilgner.

London, Museum Bookshop, 2001.

Also see back cover for information on ordering full scale historically accurate reproductions of the plates to true scale! Real cubits!

Note the NYPL had this hardbound.

The Heidelberg Library and the WILBOUR Library at the Brooklyn Museum of Art each have a copy.

Note: as of 4/29/02 this text is listed as part of the “Humanities-Asian & ME Div.!


[B_171,REF] CATNYP# *OBB 95-2830, “The Literature of Egypt and the Soudan from the earliest times to the year 1885 inclusive: a bibliography, comprising printed books, periodical writings, and papers of learned societies, maps and charts, ancient papyri, manuscripts, drawings &c. / by Prince Ibrahim-Hilmy.” Reprint 1994.

Contains an extensive bibliography of Lepsius.


See also APAW; BPAW.


See CUBIT stuff in Leppy’s “Konigsbuch”, 1858.


[B_243,cvr only=B_149,ref=BOTD] CATNYP# *OBZM (Book of the Dead. Todtenbuch der Agypter)(Locked Cage)

“Das Todtenbuch der Agypter nach dem hieroglyphischen papyrus in Turin. Mit einem vorworte zum ersten male hsrg. Von R. Lepsius.

Leipzig, 1842.


[B_243b,rvw,BOTD] CATNYP# *OBZM (Book of the Dead. Agyptische Todtenbuch)

“Book of the Dead”

AKA “Das Agyptische Todtenbuchder XVIII. Bis XX. Dynastie. Aus verschiedenen urkunden zusammengestellt und hsrg. Von Edouard Naville. Mit unterstutzung des Koniglich preussischen ministeriums der geistlichen, unterrichts- und medicinalangelegenheiten.”

Berlin, 1886.


[B_252,8.5,NO IMG*] CATNYP# *OBM (Lepsius, K. R., Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia and the Peninsula of Sinai) [also the original German is available at the Schomburg Library, NYC [B_252b] (Sc. Rare 913.32-L)].

“Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia and the Peninsula of Sinai. By Richard Lepsius. With extracts from his Chronology of the Egyptians, with reference to the exodus of the Israelites. Rev. by the author. Translated by Leonora and Joanna B. Horner.”

London, 1853.

*My image of the inscription Leppy drafted is from the original German text. [B_252b]

Includes Leppy’s discovery of evidence that the Nile once flowed much higher.

See English pages 56-59 for a tr. of Leppy’s inscription.


Check this out:


And this, (the inscription) written by Lepsius in 1842:


See the unnassigned: “Lepsius Cradle” by William Flinders Petrie as discussed or promoted by Rosalind M. Janssen in SAK/21. NO CATNYP!


See the unnassigned: “Pour une meilleure utilisation des materiaux reunis en Egypte par l’expedition de Lepsius.”

By Michel Dewachter.


[B_351a,rvw,LB] CATNYP# *OAA+ (Orientalia)


Review of Lepsius, C. R. Denkmaler aus Egypten und Aethiopien ;

Text. Vol. I-V.

Collection des Sturtwagen, C.



[B_351b,rvw,LB] CATNYP# *OAA+ (Orientalia)


Tagung K. Richard Lepsius, Halle an der Saale, 10-12 Juillet 1984.


Visit the Richard Lepsius Institute in Berlin.

Visit the Academy of Science of Berlin University.

Here the archives of the German project "Egyptian Dictionary" will be

visited, where the original notes, diaries and recordings of Richard Lepsius are kept.


LEPSIUS's Digitized texts:

(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 082903)
* Digitized article from the journals of the Royal Prussian Academy of
-- Richard Lepsius, Grundplan des Grabes König Ramses IV. in einem
Turiner Papyrus, in: Abhandlungen der Königlichen Preußischen Akademie
der Wissenschaften [AKAW] zu Berlin 1867, Philosophische und historische
Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1868, pp. 1-21, 1 pl.
URL (first page):
URL (plate):


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 091803)
* Digitized article from the journals of the Royal Prussian Academy of
-- Richard Lepsius, Über eine Hieroglyphische Inschrift am Tempel von Edfu (Appollinopolis Magna), in welcher der Besitz dieses Tempels an Ländereien unter der Regierung Ptolemaeus XI Alexander I verzeichnet ist, in: Abhandlungen der Königlichen Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855, Philologische und historische Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1856, pp. 69-114 URL (first page):
-- 6 plates
URL (first plate):


Lepsius about his transcription scheme, pp. 112-114


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 091103)
* Richard Lepsius (1810-1884), in: Bildnisse berühmter Mitglieder der
Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Akademie-Verlag,
Berlin, 1950 portrait:

Biographical data:

Memorial address: August Dillmann, Gedächtnissrede auf Karl Richard
in: Abhandlungen der Königlichen Preußischen Akademie der
zu Berlin 1885, Berlin, 1886, pp. 1-25
URL (first page):


* "Das Lepsius-Archiv am Altägyptischen Wörterbuch"


[Submitted by Michael Tilgner]
* Digitized article from the journals of the Royal Prussian Academy of
-- Richard Lepsius, Ueber den ersten Aegyptischen Goetterkreis und
seine geschichtlich-mythologische Entstehung, in: Abhandlungen der
Koeniglichen Preuszischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1851, Philologische
Und historische Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1852, pp. 157-214
URL (first page):
-- 4 plates:
URL (first plate):


081403_new plates on line from Halle of Denkmaeler


additional online publications:
-- Richard Lepsius, Vorläufige Nachrichten über die Expedition, ihre
Ergebnisse und deren Publikation, Nicolai, Berlin, 1849 - 36 pp.,
5.3 MB
-- Richard Lepsius, Reise des Professors Dr. R. Lepsius von Theben nach
der Halbinsel des Sinai vom 4. März bis zum 14. April 1845, Academ.Buchdr.,
Berlin, 1845 - 52 pp., 2 maps, pdf-file: 5.3 MB
-- Richard Lepsius, Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopien und der Halbinsel
des Sinai. 1842-1845, Berlin, 1852. - XII, 456 pp., pdf-file: 32.8 MB
-- the last one also reprinted by Elibron, 2003. 475 pp., price: USD
-- English translation: Carl Richard Lepsius. Letters from Egypt,
Ethiopia, and the Peninsula of Sinai. With Extracts from His Chronology of the
Egyptians, with Reference to the Exodus of the Israelites, Henry G.
Bohn, London, 1853. Reprinted by Elibron, 2003. 584 pp., price: USD 25.95


(as per EEF; M. Tilgner; 100803)
* Digitized book from the Lepsius project:
-- Georg Ebers, Richard Lepsius - Ein Lebensbild, Verlag von Wilhelm
Engelmann, Leipzig, 1885. xi, 390 pp. pdf-file: 21.7 MB


(as per M. Tilgner EEF; 010605)
Online version of: Richard Lepsius, Voyage de M. le professeur
Lepsius dans la presqu'île du Sinaï, du 4 mars au 14 avril 1845, in: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie, Troisième Série, vol. VII, pp. 345-392 (1847) – the map is at the end of the vol.
Translation of: Richard Lepsius, Reise des Professors Dr. R. Lepsius
von Theben nach der Halbinsel des Sinai vom 4. März bis zum 14. April 1845, Berlin, 1845 - pdf-file: 5.3 MB


LEUVEN: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven; papyrus collections

search for papyri


\7/For the most updated public list of the papyri at the Pierpont Morgan Library, see the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections Worldwide by Willy Clarisse et al., in the “collections” folder under New York --

 -- and for general information on papyri collections --




LEYDEN: papyri

See Leiden.


(as per E.A. Budge) See Leyden P. of Qenna=Kenna;

BOTD; 18th Dynasty; 50 feet long.



LIBBEY: (AE) papyrus

[B_122,rvw,IMG] CATNYP# *OBS+ (Spiegelberg, W., Papyrus Libbey),

“Der papyrus Libbey, ein agyptischer heiratsvertrag.”,

Strassburg, 1907.

“Mit drei tafeln in Lichtdruck.”

Now in the Toledo Museum of Art. Ohio.

See Images. (Demotic?)


[B_157,rvw] CATNYP# *OBS+ (Spiegelberg, W., Papyrus Libbey),

“Papyrus libbey, An Egyptian marriage contract. A monograph by Mr. Spiegelberg.”, Toledo, 1907.



LIBER ABBACI: book by Leonardo de Pisa[no] (Fibonacci)

Math treatise published in 1202. A late use of unit fractions.

Examine the surviving second edition.


(as per T. E. Peet) See edition by Boncompagni, Rome, 1857. Below.


[B_186,8.5] CATNYP# OEH+ (Fibonacci. Scritti di Leonardo Pisano),

“Scritti di Leonardo Pisano…pubblicati da Baldassarre Boncompagni…”,

Rome, 1857-62. Latin text.

See v. 1, p. 79 for unit fraction table.

My notes filed with this.

Sometimes shown as LIBER ABACI.


(as per M. Gardner) See also GUPTA; MAHAVIRA.



LIBRARY: misc. – I hate such a category

[B_278,8.5] CATNYP# JFD 00-6928 “Libraries through the ages / Fred Lerner”

An interesting introduction to related studies,-1,0,B/browse

University of Western Ontario Library

this is the contact at the circulation desk at Summit/Syracuse university library.


LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: online catalog



LICHTHEIM: (Author; Translator)

Miriam Lichtheim, 1914-


[W_045,rvw] WATSON# 533.5 St3. "Coptic ostraca from Medinet Habu / by Elizabeth Stefanski and Miriam Lichtheim." Chicago, 1952.


[B_218,rvw] CATNYP# *OBP 74-339

“Ancient Egyptian Literature; a book of readings.

Berkeley, University of California Press, 1973-78.


[B_218b; 218c,8.5] See papers by L. Bailey on the possibly monotheistic interpretations of the Hymn to the Aten.



LILLE: (Greek and Demotic) papyri; University, from town of

[B_123,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 84-705, “La Republique de Jocaste : sur les fragments d’un poeme lyrique decouverts a Lille (p. Lille 76 a, b et c) /

Jean Bollack, Pierre Judet de la Combe, Heinz Wismann.”

Paris, 1977.


[B_158,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ 95-8171, “Album de papyrus documentaires de Lille / Bernard Boyaval.” Lille, 1990.

See fascimiles.


(as per D. Meeks) [dem] P. Lille is similar to Wilbour II? Seek work by Sottas and Erichsen on Dem. P. Lille.


[W_029,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 So7 "Papyrus demotiques de Lille", Sottas, Henri, Paris, 1921.

[B_159=W_029,rvw] CATNYP# *OBS+(Sottas, H. Papyrus demotiques de Lille). NYPL has Tome 1.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Lille = Papyrus Grecs (Institut papyrologique de l’Universite de Lille), by P. Jouget, P. Collart, J. Lesquier, M. Xoual, Paris: vol. i in 4 fasc. 1907-28, volume ii, 1912


Volume II contains the papyri from Magdola in the Fayum.

See P. Ent. In ENTE>>EI>: Requetes et Plaintes adressees au Roi d’Egypte au III siecle avant J. C. [BCE], ed. O. Gueraud, Cairo, 1931-2.


P. Magd. = P. Lille ii.


P.Lille 1.1.: (Greek; reprinted in P. Zen. Pestman)



LINEAR A: A lost root of language
Buy a modern replica of the Phaestos [See PHAISTOS] disc!


(as per personal correspondence; 091303)
as per (John G. Younger)
[Linear A source texts]
Duhoux, Y. 1977. Le disque de Phaestos (archéologie -
épigraphie - édition critique - index), preface by M. Lejeune.
Louvain, Peeters.
Duhoux, Y. 1979. "La langue du disque de Phaestos: Essai de
typologie," Colloquium Mycenaeum. The Sixth International Congress on
the Aegean and Mycenaean Texts at Chaumont sur Neuchâtel, September
7-13, edited by Ernst Risch and Hugo Mühlestein: pp. 373-386.
Université de Neuchâtel, Geneva.
Duhoux, Y. 1980. "L'écriture et le texte du disque de
Phaestos." In Acts of the Fourth International Cretological
Congress, Iraklion, 29 August-3 September, 1976. (= [in Greek]
Pepragmena tou D' Diethnous Kretologikou Sunedrioiu Erakleio
[Augoustou-Septembriou]), I: 112-36. Athens.
Godart, L. 1993. Il Disco di Festos: Certezze ed enigmi di
una grande scoperta (Archeologia Viva Suppl. 42). Florence.
Godart, L. 1995. Le Disque de Phaistos. L'énigme d'une écriture.
Editions Itanos 1995.
Olivier, J.-P. 1975 "Le Disque de Phaistos. Édition
photographique," Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique 99: 5-44.
try downloading --
it will have to be "unstuffed"
all numbers in Linear A & B are written
with strokes etc., except perhaps on Linear A HT Zd 156, which may
record the word for the number "five"  


LINEAR B: recently decrypted to a large degree
Cf. J. Chadwick, The Decipherment of Linear B (Cambridge, 1958).

LINGUISTICS: Hey! I needed a place for this amazing site.

Not the familiar Chuck Jones of Chicago!



LIPS.: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Lips. = Greichische Urkunden der Papyrussammlung zu Leipzig, i, by I. Mitteis, Leipzig, 1906.



P.Lips. 1. Purchase of two pieces of real property (record of the agoranomos):

(Greek; 104 bce; from Pathyris)

Purchased for 5500 drachma. Account.



LIRR: the Long Island Rail Road



LIVY: surviving works

Luxembourg, House of: (1) Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Codex Bambergensis (Bamberg, Staatsbib., Ms. Class. 42)

The received text of the extant thirty-five books of Livy is taken from different sources.

For the third decade our chief authority is the Codex Puteanus, an uncial MS. of the 5th century, now at Paris. For the fourth we have two leading MSS—Codex Bambergensis, 11th century, and the slightly older Codex Moguntinus, now lost and only known. through the Mainz edition of 1518—1519. What remains of the fifth decade depends on the 5th century Laurishamensis or Vindobonensis from the monastery of Lorsch, edited at Basel in 1531

From :*.html

Pliny: (1) Pliny the elder, §2(i): Natural History: Introduction

Codex Bodley (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Mex. d.1)



LOEB: (Author; demotic); papyrus

James Loeb 1867-?


Demotic. AKA P. Hou?


(as per D. Meeks) seek Spiegelberg's work on P. Dem. Loeb XVII.


(as per R.A. Parker, [W_017], VIENNA, See [B_124], below)

[B_124,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ+ (Munic. Universitat…), "Die Demotischen Papyri Loeb von Wilhelm Spiegelberg, mit zusatzen von Walter Otto; mit 38 lichtdrucktafeln.”, Munchen, 1931.


[B_160,rvw] CATNYP# MAH+(Festschrift fuer James Loeb),

“Festschrift fur James Loeb; zum sechzigsten Geburtstag gewidmet von seinen archaologischen Freunden in Deutschland und Amerika. Mit 16 Taflen and 120 Textabbildungen.” Munchen, 1930.



LOGIC: think!

(as per L. Bailey) See John Baines’, “Interpretations in religion: logic, discourse, rationality

See conditional sentences.

In.Sdm.f=IF he hears!

See GM Gottinger Miszellen Beitrage zur agyptologischen Diskussion, Heft 76, Gottingen 1984.”

See GAMES, HOFSTADTER, MATH prior to 1601.

The Association for Symbolic Logic.

The Mathematical Logic Group.



LONDON: (Greek) papyri

(as per LEX) See P. London (Greek) in the British Museum.

(as per LEX) See P. Med. London=BM 10059


See work by Wreszinski, W.

See work by Hearst.


(as per D. Fowler) Seek P. Lond. ii 265; cols 2 and 3. Math. Greek.

Seek also 400 CE. P. Lond. i 99. Math. Greek?

Seek also 400 CE. P. Lond. ii 755. Math. Greek?


See also work by F.G. KENYON on Greek papyri.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Lond = Greek Papyri in the British Museum, ed. F. G. Kenyon and H. I. Bell, London, 1893-1917, 5 volumes. (P. Jews continues the numerical sequence of the London Papyri, but forms a separate publication. Up to end of vol iii texts must be quoted by volume number, serial number and page number.) There are separate atlases of plates to volumes i, and iii.

Vol i, Catalogue with texts, ed. F. G. Kenyon, 1893.

Vol ii, item, 1898.

Vol iii, Catalogue with texts, ed. F. G. Kenyon and H. I. Bell, London, 1907.

Vol iv, The Aphrodito Papyri, ed. H. I. Bell, with appendix of Coptic papyri, ed. W. E. Crum, 1910.

Vol v, Cataogue with texts, ed. H. I. Bell, 1917.


(as per E. G. Turner)

P. Lond. 1912 see P. Jews.


P. Lit. Lond. = P. Lond. Lit = Catalog of Literary Papyri in the British Museum, ed. H.J.M. Milne, London, 1927.


See this link to the research archives of the University College of London.


P.Lond.: Greek Papyri in the British Museum

P.Lond. 1.112,pxviii.: (Greek)



LONSDORFER: (Demotic) papyrus

(as per LEX) Demotic.


[W_030,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 J96 "Papyrus Lonsdorfer I : ein Ehepakt aus der Zeit des Nektanebos / von H. Junker", Wien, 1921.




See Nectanebos.



LOS LUNAS: (Hebrew/Greek/Byzantine) inscription at New Mexico

– an unlikely fraud?





LOTUS: (ancient) math symbol from AE; India; China

See UHN: P. 441: See lotus plant used as a math symbol with varied color values .

See Narmer Macehead and Palette “Kumud” or “Kumuda”.

Indian values unlike AE 3000 (or 1000) were 10^25 to 10^112 many variances.



LOUVRE: (Museum; multilingual collections) papyri and ostraca

(as per Haikal, Fayza Mohamed Hussein, [B_032], NESMIN)

Louvre I #3049, is similar to NESMIN?

#3049=Glorification of Osiris?=B.M. 10208.

See also Maspero; Denon.


[B_082,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKM (Paris. Musee national du Louvre. Departement des antiquities egyptiennes. Catalogue), "Catalogue des manuscrits egyptiens ecrits sur papyrus, toile, tablettes et ostraca en caracteres hieroglyphiques, hieratiques, demotiques, grecs, coptes, arabes et latins qui sont conserves au Musee egyptien du Louvre, par feu Theodule Deveria..." Paris 1881. edited by Paul Pierret.


See [B_042], ABBOTT.


(as per 2terres) see Boulaq III, BULAQ.


[W_016,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 M384. "Memoire sur quelques papyrus du Louvre : extrait des Notices et extraits des manuscrits, tome XXIV, lre partie." Paris 1875 By Gaston Maspero.


See this link to the Louvre.


(as per AEB) See accounts on P. Louvre 3326.


Papyrus Louvre N.3176, mentioned here.



(as per S. Katary, [B_100])

The Louvre Leather Fragments

A land register of the XIX Dynasty

See rate of assessment calculated in line a, 5.

P. Louvre 3171

Mentions State Granary of Memphis.


(as per Y. Muffs) See [W_012], ELEPHANTINE.

P. Louvre e 3228 e (707 BCE.)

An hieratic deed of the sale of a slave.


P. Louvre E. 7861 (abnormal hieratic, 566 BCE., Thebes)

Legal content.

See M. Malinine, “Deux documents egyptiens relatifs au depot,” MDAIK, 16 (1958), p. 221-2.


See also Drovetti. The Drovetti collection at the Louvre.





LOVE: (ancient) songs

(as per J. Carrington; EEF; 042403)

"Love Songs of the New Kingdom"

Translated from the Ancient Egyptian by John L. Foster.  Scribner's.



Text sources:

Papyrus Chester Beatty I

Papyrus Harris 500

Papyrus Turin 1966

Cairo Ostracon 25218

Ostracon Deir El Medineh 1266


(as per S. Fryer; EEF; 042603)

<snip> erotically graphic <snip> pornographic

<snip> the so-called Turin Erotic Papyrus (Papyrus 55001), now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy. Painted in the Ramesside period (1292-1075 B.C.E.), the severely damaged papyrus <snip> consists of a continuous series of vignettes drawn on a papyrus scroll about 8.5 feet long and 10 inches high. The first third of the scroll (reading from right to left) shows animals and birds carrying out various human tasks. The rest consists of explicit depictions of sexual acts.



LUGDUNENSIS: (Greek and Latin) codex of the Gospels


[AKA] CODEX CANTABRIGIENSIS, one of the five most important Greek New Testament manuscripts, and the most interesting of all on account of its peculiar readings; scholars designate it by the letter D (see BIBLICAL CRITICISM, sub-title Textual). It receives its name from Theodore Beza, the friend and successor of Calvin, and from the University of Cambridge, which obtained it as a gift from Beza in 1581 and still possesses it. The text is bilingual, Greek and Latin. The manuscript, written in uncial characters, forms a quarto volume, of excellent vellum, 10 x 8 inches, with one column to a page, the Greek being on the left page (considered the place of honour), the parallel Latin facing it on the right page. It has been reproduced in an excellent photographic facsimile, published (1899) by the University of Cambridge.


The codex contains only the Four Gospels, in the order once common in the West, Matthew, John, Luke, Mark, then a few verses (11-15), in Latin only, of the Third Epistle of St. John, and the Acts. There are missing, however, from the manuscript of the original scribe, in the Greek, Matt., i, 1-20; [iii, 7-16]; vi, 20-ix, 2; xxvii, 2-12; John i, 16-iii, 26; [xviii, 14-xx, 13]; [Mk. xvi, 15-20]; Acts, viii, 29-x, 14; xxi, 2-10, 16-18; xxii, 10-20; xxii, 29-xxviii, 31; in the Latin, Matt., i, 1-11; [ii, 21-iii, 7]; vi,8-viii, 27; xxvi, 65-xxvii, 1; John, i, 1-iii, 16; [xviii, 2-xx, 1]; [Mk., xvi, 6-20]; Acts viii, 20-x, 4; xx, 31-xxi, 2, 7-10; xxii, 2-10; xxiii, 20- xxviii, 31. The passages in brackets have been supplied by a tenth-century hand.


Beza himself, after having first denominated his codex Lugdunensis, later called it Claromontanus, as if it came not from Lyons, but from Clermont (near Beauvais, not Clermont of Auvergne). All this, throwing Beza's original statement into doubt, indicates that the manuscript was in Italy in the middle of the sixteenth century, and has some bearing upon the locality of the production.



LUGDUNO-BATAVA: (Greek; demotic) papyri



(as per D. Meeks) seek P. Lugduno-Batava and Gebelein?


(as per D. Fowler) Seek image of P. Lugd. Bat. xxi; Pestman, GZA. [W_031,rvw]

Index of symbols (math).

GZA=Greek and demotic texts from the Zenon archive. See also ZENON.


[W_031,rvw] WATSON# 573.6 P192 v20. "Greek and demotic texts from the Zenon archive :

(P. L. Bat. 20) / edited under the general direction of P. W. Pestman." Leiden, 1980.


[W_032,rvw] WATSON# 573.6 P192. "The two faces of Graeco-Roman Egypt / Greek and Demotic and Greek-Demotic text and studies presented to P. W. Pestman [by Alumni of the Papyrological Institute] ; edited by A. M. F. W. Verhoogt and S. P. Vleeming", Boston, 1998.

(322 BCE - 640 CE)


[W_033,rvw] WATSON# 573.6 P192. v22. "Les archives privees de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas (P.L. Bat 22) : textes grecs et demotiques / edited par E. Boswinkel et P. W. Pestman", Leiden, 1982.


(As per E. G. Turner) The Lugduno-Batava Papyrologica includes review of

(Greek) papyri:

P. Warren;

P. Weiner;

Oxford P.;

P. Vindob Sijpesteijn


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Lugd.-Bat. = Papyri Graeci Musei Antiquarii publici Lugduni-Batavi, ed. C. Leemans, Leiden, 1843, 1885. See also Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava.


[B_276,rvw] CATNYP# BGTM+ (Leemans, C. Animadversiones in Musei antiquarii Lugduno-Batavi)

“Animadversiones in Musei antiquarii Lugduno-Batavi inscriptiones Graecas et Latinas, a L. J. F. Janssen … editas. Scripsit Conradus Leemans … Additur tabula.”

Lugduno Batavorum, apud H. W. Hazenberget socios, 1842.




CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava. V. 25)

BOBST# PA3301 .P34 vol.25

“Papyri, Ostraca, parchments and waxed tablets in the Leiden Papyrological Institute (P. L. Bat. 25) / edited by F. A. J. Hoogendijk and P. van Minnen ; with contributions by W. Clarysse; R. W. Daniel; F. A. J. De Haas; N. Kruit; K. Vandorpe; B. Veerbeeck and by C. Gallazzi and J. D. Thomas.”

Leiden; 1991

See BOBST Archive: O 1

Includes this index to other volumes.:

Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava


Edidit Institutum Papyrologicum Universitatis Lugduno‑Batavae moderantibus E. Boswinkel

W. Clarysse, P.W. Pestman S.P. Vleeming


Vols. 1-11 are out of print.


12. Sijpesteijn, P.J. Penthemeros Certificates in Graeco‑Roman Egypt. 1964. (viii, 83 [ptly Gr.

t.] p.) ISBN 90 04 03100 6

13. Boswinkel E., P.W. Pestman & P.J. Sijpesteijn (eds.). Papyri selectae. 1965. (x, 84 [ptly

Gr. t.] p., 1 fold. p., 10 [1 fold.] pl.) ISBN 90 04 01698 8

14. Boswinkel E., P.W. Pestman & P.J. Sijpesteijn (eds.). Studia papyrologica varia. 1965.

(viii, 120 [ptly Gr. t.] p., figs., tables) ISBN 90 04 01699 6

15. Pestman P.W. Chronologie egyptienne d'apres les textes demotiques (332 av. J.C.‑453 ap.

J.C.). 1967. (iv., 233 [ptly Gr. t.] p., tables) ISBN 90 04 01700 3

16. Sijpesteijn, P.J. The Wisconsin Papyri. Part I. 1967. (x, 151 [ptly Gr. t.] p., 37 fasc. on 14

pl.) ISBN 90 04 01701 1

17. Boswinkel E., B.A. van Groningen & P.W. Pestman (eds.). Antidoron Martino David obla­

tum. 1968. (viii, 157 [ptly Gr. t.] p., 13 [2 fold.] pl.) ISBN 90 04 03101 4

18. Paap, A.H.R.E. The Xenophon Papyri. Anabasis, Cyropaedia, Cynegeticus, De Vectigalibus. 1970.

(viii, 91 p.) ISBN 90 04 01703 8

19. Boswinkel E. & P.W. Pestman (eds.). Textes grecs, demotiques et bilingues. Edites par

divers auteurs. 1978. (x, 286 p., fold. table, 28 pl.) ISBN 90 04 0577 2        1

20. Pestman P.W. (ed.). Greek and Demotic Texts from the Zenon Archive, 2 vols. 1980. 1 Text

(xvi, 291 p., many ills.); 2. Plates. 34 x 24 cm (viii, p., 30 pl.) ISBN 90 04 06113 4

21. Pestman P.W. A Guide to the Zenon Archive, 2 Vols. 1981. A. Lists and Surveys. (xx, 466

p.); B. Indexes and Maps. (v, pp. 467 ‑ 749, 4 sketchmaps) ISBN 90 04 06325 0

22. Boswinkel E. & P.W. Pestman (eds.). Les archives privees de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas.

Textes grecs et demotiques 2 Vols. 1982. A. Texte. (x, 342 p.); B. Planches. (viii, 44 pl.) ISBN

90 04 06588 1

23. Pestman P.W. (ed.). Textes etudes de papyrologie grecque, demotique et copte. 1985. (vii,

242 p., 9 pl.) ISBN 90 04 06970 4

24. Clarysse, W., G. Van der Veken & S.P. Vleeming The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic

Egypt. Chronological Lists of the Priests of Alexandria and Ptolemais with a Study of the Demotic

Transcriptions of Their Names. 1983. (x, 165 p.) ISBN 90 04 06879 1


Quote from P. # 65, 5: “The landowner was drugged in order that he should accept more.”

See accounts, abecedary, receipts, loans, leases, metrology, math.HOMER.




[B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]

CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava v. 18)

BOBST# PA 3301 .P34 vol. 18

“The Xenophon papyri. Anabis, Cyropaedia, Cygnegeticus, De Vectigalibus. By A. H. R. E. Paap.

Leiden, 1970.”

See BOBST Archive: O 1

math content? Metrology.

Volume includes:

1. P. Oxy. XV.

2. P.S.I. XI

3. P. Oxy. III.

4. P. Oxy IX.

5. P. Oxy. XXXVI.

6. P. Vat. Gr. II.

7. P. Oxy. XVII.

8. P. Oxy. IV.

9a. P. Varsov I. (papyrus codex)

9b. P. Ryl. III.

10. P. Oxy. VII.

11. P. Oxy. IV.

12. P. Hawara 15.

13. Raineri M. VI.

14. P. Rein. II.

15. Archiv I (de Vectigalibus).



LUNDENSIA: (Greek) papyri and ostraca

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Lund. Univ. Bibl. = Aus der Papyrussammlung der Universitatsbibliothek in Lund, ed. A. Wifstrand, K. Hanell, and E. J. Knudtzon, Lund, 1935-?, 7 volumes in 1965.

Part i, Literarische Fragmente, ed. A Wifstrand (in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1934-5, pp. 53-65).


Pt ii, Greichische Privatbriefe, ed. A Wifstrand (in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1936-7, pp. 161-72).


Pt iii, Kultische Texte, ed. K. Hanell (in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1937-8, pp. 119-42).


Pt iv, Bakchiastexte und andere Papyri, ed. E. J. Knudtzon, 1946 (in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1945-6, pp. 63-78): (also published in Bakchiastexte und andere Papyri, Lund, Ohlssons Boktryckerei).


Pt v, Zwei Astronomische Texte, ed. E. J. Knudtzon and O. Neugebauer, 1947 (in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1946-7, pp. 77-88): indexes to part i-iv by E. J. Knudtzon in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1946-7, pp. 91-109.



Pt vi, Vermischte Texte, ed. E. J. Knudtzon 1952 (in Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund, 1951-52, pp. 119-37).


See P. Lund. 31; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 38; 42 within: SOKNOBRAISIS [O_022]


O. Lund.: (Greek; 19 AD)


P.Lund 2.1. Ein Soldat an seine Geschwister: (Greek)





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