Home | Color Guide | Abbreviation Guide | Personal Library Master key | Usage Guide | Thank You A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W-X | Y-Z  

Last updated 12/25/05


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID


OASIS: (Greek; Roman; Byzantine) ostraca



O. Oasis ChamsElDin1.: (Greek; ~350 AD)



OBELISQUE: Lots of them, mostly Roman

(as per EEF)

The AE word for obelisk was txn (tekhen; glyph O25).


(as per EEF; P. Tesoriere)

Roman Obelisks

by Margaret Coffin - Italia -


Obelischi di Rome

by Cooperativa IL SOGNO - Italia -


Obeliscos Egipcios

by  Claudio Alvarez - Argentina -


See this link for Cleopatra’s needle and more


[B_182a, no img,IGNR] CATNYP# *OBL, Institut Francais d’Arch. A la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris, Le Caire, 1931, Tome 30(3-4).

Non-pictorial descriptions of numerous obelisks.



OCCAM: and his common sense  

Remember the wisdom of Occam's Razor:

"...of all possible solutions to a given problem, the simplest one is the one most likely to be

Whenever one seeks complex, convolute and arcane answers
to a problem...that person has probably missed the correct answer.

i.e. G-d is subtle, not wicked.


OLZ: (philology / theology) journal

OLZ=Orientalische Literaturzeitung


CATNYP# *OAA+ (Orientalische Literaturzeitung) Berlin, 1898-present

See KAHUN; CALENDAR; referenced in Anne Sophie Bomhard’s text:

“The Ancient Egyptian Calendar…” [B_HOUSE]



OMPHALOS: (meroitic) artifact

see meroitic omphalos

See Reisner; MFA in Boston; Thebes; Temple of AMUN

royal cemeteries at Meroe / Gebel Barkal

Nubian MFA item report on the OMPHALOS filed with [B_031]



ON: (AE; Biblical) City of

See Annu, Heliopolis.



ONTARIO: [Canada Museum] (Greek; Demotic) ostraca; collections

O. Ont. Mus. 1.1: (Greek/Demotic; 229 bce; from THEBES)



OPPERT: (Author)

Jules [AKA Julius] Oppert, born Hamburg, 1825-1905. Founder of Assyriology.


Worked on the Achaemenian inscriptions.

Biblical Scholar.

Study of Assyrian Metrology and Astronomy (and Grammar).

Study of Mesopotamian legal documents.


[B_087,8.5,BIB, JH] CATNYP# *PWZ (Oppert) (Muss-Arnolt, W. Works of Jules Oppert), "The works of Jules Oppert".

Semitic fragment?

Mentions work on the Borsippa Inscriptions, Achaemenian inscriptions, Moabite Stone, sarcophagus of Eshmunazar of Sidon.

Sargonides (Assyrian) insciptions.


See also p. 534, #54 (Juif).

See also Sennacherib


[W_003,rvw] WATSON# 540.5 Op5. "Documents juridiques de l'Assyrie et de la Chaldee : par MM. J. Oppert et J. Menant", Paris 1877.

Assyrian civil law.


[W_004,rvw] WATSON# 540.4 Op5 "Expedition scientifique en Mesopotamie : executee par order du gouvernement de 1851 a 1854 / par MM. Fulgence Fresnel, Felix Thomas et Jules Oppert." Paris 1859.



ORBINEY: (AE) papyrus (d'ORBINEY)

[B_102,rvw] CATNYP# *OBP 82-647, "Papyrus d'Orbiney (British Museum), the hieroglyphic transciption, edited by Charles E. Moldenke. Watchung, N.J., Elsinore Press, 1900.


(as per LEX) P. d'Orbiney, LESt, 9-29?


(as per F. Chabas) A contest of two Brothers, resembles Genesis.


(as per CATNYP) See the Tale of Two Brothers.


See also [similar; later] JUMILHAC.

P. d’ORBINEY=BM 10183.



ORCURTI: (Author)

Pier-Camillo O[r?]curti. Born in Turin, 1822.


“Catologo illustrato dei monumenti egizii del Real Museo di Torino”

Torino, 1852.

Cubit stuff.

Available at the Wilbour Library.

[B_242,8.5’s of volume 1 only,rvw=B_149,p. 16,ref]

CATNYP# *OBL (Orcurti, P.-C. Catologo illustrato dei monumenti egizii del R. Museo di Torino)(Locked Cage)

Two tomes in one volume.

Still I must copy page 172. Not found at NYPL.

NYPL has volume one only.

(A different edition than what CATNYP points to.)

The NYPL book is inscribed by Orcurti to M. Lepsius!

See p. 41:

“1. Statua d’uomo ritto col nilometro; granito nero”.

Altezza 2.0 [meters]

Base .75

(Length:Width) : (8:3)

“2. Statua d’uomo sedente col nilometro, ristorata nel capo; calcare bianco”.

Altezza 1.2 [meters]

Base .72

(Length:Width) : (5:3)

See Columbia’s Avery [art] Library for volume two.

Volume two not yet found via CLIO @ Columbia University

Library in NY City.



ORHUN: (Turkish) Monuments of law

ORHUN MONUMENTS: they are oldest written samples of Turkish language. Today they are in Mongolia. They are also called as Orhun and Yenisey inscriptions due to the fact that they are in between the rivers Orhun and Yenisey. The inscriptions are also named according to where they are present. For example; North Mongolia inscriptions, Yenisey inscriptions, Altay inscriptions, East Turkmen inscriptions.


See also LAW.



ORIGEN: update


The Hexapla was an important work of biblical criticism, the magnum opus of Origen (185-254). In his discussions with the Jews, Origen became aware of the significant differences between the Hebrew Bible used by the Jews and the Septuagint of Christians. Although he probably began the work while still in Alexandria, he completed it after moving to Caesarea. Most portions of the Hexapla consisted of six columns of parallel texts: (1) the Hebrew text, (2) the Hebrew text transliterated into Greek characters, (3) the Greek version of Aquila, (4) the Greek version of Symmachus, (5) the Septuagint, and (6) the Greek version of Theodotion. In the Septuagint column, Origen marked with an obelus those passages present in Greek but not found in his Hebrew column. When the Septuagint lacked material found in Hebrew, Origen would insert the passage from one of the other Greek columns (which were closer textually to the Hebrew) and mark the insertion with an asterisk. Although the Hexapla in its entirety was apparently never copied, the Septuagint column was copied repeatedly. Unfortunately, many copies omitted Origen's textual marks, thus introducing a significant amount of contamination into the textual tradition of the Septuagint. Only a few fragments of copies of the Hexapla or of its fifth column are extant. One of the most important witnesses to Origen's work is the seventh century Syriac translation of the fifth column--complete with textual marks--attributed to Paul of Tella, known as the Syro-Hexapla.



ORVILLE: (Greek) Bodleian manuscript [of] d’Orville;

at Oxford; dated to 888 CE.


(as per D. Fowler) Seek images of this (Greek) geometric treatise.

The [Euclidean] manuscript [IMAGE!] of 888 CE: [MS. D'Orville 301, fol. 46r]


[MS. D'Orville 301]; different portion; restored image.


[Medieval Manuscripts and links to/from the Bodleian Library]


[Math!; Euclid fragment image shown; now at U. Penn.]



OSIRIS: (AE; OK) legend of

[B_182a,IMG,8.5] CATNYP# *OBL, Institut Francais d’Arch. A la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris, Le Caire, 1931, Tome 30(3-4). Plate II.

Image of stele of Amenemes.



(as per EEF; R. A. Usher-Cooper);

When they do turn up from time to time among the older Egyptian texts,

references to the Osirian myth always seem to be decidedly incomplete

and generally allude to only one or two aspects of the tale. The

Amenmose stele (Louvre C286), for example, gives very little detail.


There is remarkably little discussion of the subject in Herodotus, but

presumably the more complete versions of the tale have come down to us through Greek and, possibly, some Middle Eastern sources.



OSLO: [Norway Museum] (Greek) papyri and ostraca


CATNYP# *OBKQ (Papyri Osloenses)

BOBST# PA3309 .O8

“Papyri Osloenses…edited by S. Eitrem”

Oslo, 1925

Studies by Leiv Amundsen [1898-?] and Samson Eitrem [1872-1966at the University of Oslo include Greek (Magical and literary and correspondence) Papyri. Two volumes.

See plates; see MAGIC.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Osl. = Papyri Osloenses, ed. S. Eitrem and L. Amundsen. Oslo, 1925-36. 3 volumes as of 1965. Separate plates.


vol i, Magical papyri, ed. S. Eitrem, 1925.


vol ii, Literary Texts, Documents, Private Correspondence, ed. S. Eitrem and L. Amundsen, 1931.


vol iii, Literary Texts, Documents (official and private), Private Correspondence, Horoscopes, short Texts and Fragments, ed. S. Eitrem and L. Amundsen, 1936.


See also O. Osl. = Ostraca Osloensia, ed. L. Amundsen, Oslo, 1933.




O. Oslo 1: (Greek from THEBES)


P.Oslo 2.16. Declaration of Surety: (Greek; 266 bce)



OSTRACA: pottery shards




OSTRACON: publication

Journal of the egyptian study society is published 2-3 times per year.


(as per 2005 EEF reference]
See OSTRACON Volume 14, number 2, summer 2003.
Article by James Lowdermilk:
“Unit Fractions: Inception and Use”
pp. 6-9
Assigned as [B_604] anyway.

View online at:
A brief introduction into the arithmetic and astronomy of the Ancient Egyptians with a brief bibliography referring to the more detailed works of:
Clagett, Marshall [died 10/21/05]
And other lesser known works on the neolithic history of the Egyptian territory.


(as per 2005 EEF reference]
See OSTRACON Volume 16, number 1, winter 2004-5.
Article by Rhonda K. Hagerman:
“Senet: The Game of Passing”
pp. 6-9
Assigned as [B_605] anyway.

View online at:


A brief introduction into the obscure rules of the Ancient Egyptians’ [backgammon-ish] GAME of SENET (*the true rules appear to have been obscured by later rule changes and lost to time, but are reconstructed to some degree by the author) with a brief bibliography referring to the more detailed works of: Marshall Clagett.


OTAGO: (Greek) Papyrus from University of

Papyri in the possession of the Otago Museum, Dunedin, N.Z.




Read: “black humor” by bruce jay friedman


Lenny Bruce Comedy on CD; See BRUCE



OTTOBONIANUS LATINUS: (Latin; medieval) Codex

See Archimedes?

AKA Heiberg Codex B?


In 1946 the Swedish scholar M. Gosta Claesson, Reader in Philology at Upsalla, discovered in the Ottoboni collection of manuscripts in the Vatican library a manuscript which contained extracts of 4 treatises by Tertullian. The manuscript once belonged to Queen Christina of Sweden and was brought by her to Rome. It is no. 1479 in the catalogue of Montfaucon (cf. Studi e Testi, 238 (1964), p.84). It does not date to the s.XIV but rather was copied in France in s.XIII (according to François Avril).

See J. Borleffs, Un nouveau manuscrit de Tertullien, in Vigiliae Christianae 5 (1951)


AKA Vaticanus Ottobonianus Latinus



OXFORD: (Greek) papyri

(as per E. G. Turner) See Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava

Volume 3, Some Oxford Papyri, by E. P. Wegener, Leiden 1942.

See P. Oxford Wegener.


(as per E. G. Turner) P. Oxford Wegener = Some Oxford Papyri, ed. E. P. Wegener, Leiden, 1942 = Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava iii.


P.Oxf. 1. Petition: (Greek)



OXYRHYNCHOS: (Greek and Latin; other) papyri

(as per B.P. Grenfell, HIBEH) A Ptolemaic Nome.


See BRUXELLES or Brussells


(as per LEX) Seek work by Grenfell, B.P., London, 1898.

(as per E. G. Turner) P. Oxy. = The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ed. B.P. Grenfell, A.S. Hunt, et al, London, 1898-?, 32 volumes as of 1966.


(as per H. Goedicke) Seek OXYRHYNCHOS P. XI, 1183.


(as per CATNYP) Seek unavailable (in-house) material,



Follow this link to an image of (Greek) P. OXYRHYNCHUS.


[B_088,rvw] CATNYP# JFE 99-14441, "Astronomical papyri from OXYRHYNCHUS : P. Oxy. 4133-4300a / edited with translations and commentaries by Alexander Jones."

Philadelphia 1999.


[B_089,rvw] CATNYP# *OBKQ 76-254, "Location list of the OXYRHYNCHUS papyri published by the Egypt Exploration Society [ZPE] / compiled by R. A. Coles, London 1974.


[W_056,rvw] WATSON# 533.6 Eg9 v76. "The OXYRHYNCHUS papyri : volume LVI / edited with translations and notes by M. G. Sirivianou, with contributions by H. C. Gunther...[et al]." London, 1989.


(as per ZPE; D. Fowler) Seek P. Oxy. XXXIII 2656 and P. Oxy. XLIX 3456.Math content.


(as per Duke Univ.) Seek P.Oxy. Census.

The Census Register P.Oxy. 984: The Reverse of Pindar's Paeans, ed. R.S. Bagnall, B.W. Frier and I.C. Rutherford. (Pap.Brux. 29). Brussels 1997.


[B_180b,8.5,IMG, v. 2] CATNYP# *OBQ+ 73-2731 t. 82, “Hommages Serge Sauneron, Cairo, 1979.

See volume two, mention of P. Oxy. 34, 2721, 1.27, dated to 234 CE.


(as per E. G. Turner) AKA el-Bahnasa.


(as per EEF; A. Ayma)

Redford in his 'Pharaonic King-lists, Annals and Day-books'

(SSEA Publication IV, 1986) has two pages (pp.284-285) on this

papyrus, with a brief outline but not the text. To only give his

post-1950 references:

C.H. Roberts - Oxyrhynchus Papyri 22 (1954), pp. 86ff

L. Kakosy - in: Acta Or. 19 (1966) p.345

L. Koenen - in: ZPE 2 (1968) pp.178ff

J.W.Barnes - in: Orientalia 46 (1977) pp. 31ff

Wildung - Imhotep und Amenhotep, p. 275


Apparantly Koenen and Barnes are the most important

commentaries - perhaps anyone can suggest more recent ones?

I do not know which editions have the full text translation.

Wadell (commentary with Manetho Fr 54) says there are editions

of the Greek papyrus by Wilcken (in: Hermes xl 1905, pp 544ff)

and Manteuffel (1930), but also here one would hope for something

more recent.


P.Oxy. 1.32. Latin letter to a tribunus militum:


P.Oxy.Descr.: Varia Descripta Oxyrhynchita

P.Oxy.Descr. 1.: (Greek)

See 2000 drachmas. Math.


P.Oxy.Hels.: Fifty Oxyrhynchus Papyri

P.Oxy.Hels. 8.:(Greek; 9 bce; Oxyrhynchus)

Math content?


Great bibliography:


See LUGDUNO-BATAVA; [B_447=O_012,NO IMG,8.5]


[B_088,no copy,purchase]
“Astronomical papyri from OXYRHYNCHUS : P. Oxy. 4133-4300a / edited with translations and commentaries by Alexander Jones.”
Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1999.
See “Handy Tables” by PTOLEMY.
Roman period astronomical papyri from Egyptian nome.
ISSN 0065-9738 ; v. 233
ISBN {for APS Memoirs in general?} 0-87169-233-3 (cloth)


As per personal correspondence 050004
Contact Professor Emeritus Asger Aaboe in pursuit of KESKINTO Astronomical Inscription.
*Mr. Aaboe’s contact info:
and his text for sale:


[filed with B_088,8.5,ZPE,1997,156-166]
“On the Reconstructed Macedonian and Egyptian Lunar Calendars.”
By Alexander Jones.
Notes from above ZPE article:
Both Macedonian [Greek] and Egyptian Lunar calendars are assumed to be generated by repeating cycles rather than by observation [of Full moons].

Conjectured cyclical reconstructions by Parker, Neugebauer and others are suspect but tend not to drift or vary by more than one day [from each other, not from the actual full moon] over periods of 300 years or more.


Calippic [assumes 19 years is 235 Lunar months] and Geminus [Drop each 64th day from assumed 30 day lunar months] cycles discussed and reference to further works by B. R. Goldstein and A. C. Bowen.


[Parker’s] Assumed constant of 25 Egyptian civil years [of 12 x 30 day months and 5 epagomenal days=365 days] is 309 lunar months.


See [dated to 180 BCE] Papyrus Ryland IV 589 for an alternate 25 year cycle.


See also:


(as per EEF; A. Barahona; 050204)
Section Archaeology - AÑO VII-Vol. I (2004).
A new article <snip> entitled:
- "Últimos descubrimientos en el yacimiento arqueológico de Oxirrinco
(El-Bahnasa), Egipto - Recent discoveries in the archaeological site of
Oxirhyncus (El-Bahnasa), Egypt. por Esther Pons Mellado.


Abstract: Oxyrhynchus (El Bahnasa) is located on the Bahr Yussef, some
190 km. south of Cairo. It was discovered by Denon in 1798 and since 1992
the University of Barcelona works there. The Oxyrhynchus's area has three
parts: a Christian chapel with paintings, a Coptic-Saite Necropolis and
an underground structure dedicated to Osiris.


Home | Color Guide | Abbreviation Guide | Personal Library Master key | Usage Guide | Thank You A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W-X | Y-Z  


See images and analysis of ancient mathematical objects: IMAGE GRID